full name
ret proto-oncogene

synonyms
CDHF12, CDHR16, HSCR1, MEN2A, MEN2B, MTC1, PTC, RET-ELE1, RET51, RET, ENSG00000165731

HGNC
HGNC:9967

Entrez Gene
Gene:5979

ENSEMBL
ENSG00000165731

location
chr: 10
start: 43572517
stop: 43625799
strand: +

OMIM
OMIM:164761: RET (Autosomal dominant inheritance)
OMIM:209880: Central hypoventilation syndrome, congenital
OMIM:155240: Medullary thyroid carcinoma
OMIM:171400: Multiple endocrine neoplasia IIA
OMIM:162300: Multiple endocrine neoplasia IIB
OMIM:171300: Pheochromocytoma
OMIM:142623: {Hirschsprung disease, susceptibility to, 1}

transcripts
ENST00000355710
ENST00000340058

pathways
ARMS-mediated activation [NCBI:1269471] [REACTOME:R-HSA-170984] [PUBMED:9069267]
Axon guidance [NCBI:83065] [KEGG:hsa04360] [NCBI:1270303] [REACTOME:R-HSA-422475] [PUBMED:14682358] [PUBMED:11687826] [PUBMED:15084255] [PUBMED:15818466] [PUBMED:12471249] [PUBMED:15363605] [PUBMED:15630019] [PUBMED:11891122] [PUBMED:15960985] [PUBMED:12677003]
Central carbon metabolism in cancer [NCBI:1059538] [KEGG:hsa05230] [PUBMED:16982728] [PUBMED:21127244] [PUBMED:22156302] [PUBMED:22349059] [PUBMED:21801601] [PUBMED:15916903] [PUBMED:24113830] [PUBMED:23018234] [PUBMED:22237205] [PUBMED:23897900] [PUBMED:20520704] [PUBMED:18177721] [PUBMED:24398961] [PUBMED:18538731] [PUBMED:24079832] [PUBMED:19460998] [PUBMED:22101401] [PUBMED:22750268] [PUBMED:22307140] [PUBMED:23071355] [PUBMED:21258394] [PUBMED:23279446] [PUBMED:21340684] [PUBMED:19270154] [PUBMED:18766298] [PUBMED:21508971] [PUBMED:24738035]
Cytokine Signaling in Immune system [NCBI:1269310] [REACTOME:R-HSA-1280215] [PUBMED:12613569]
DAP12 interactions [NCBI:1269283] [REACTOME:R-HSA-2172127] [PUBMED:19120482] [PUBMED:17220916] [PUBMED:9490415] [PUBMED:18192027] [PUBMED:15884055]
DAP12 signaling [NCBI:1269284] [REACTOME:R-HSA-2424491] [PUBMED:15884055] [PUBMED:17110943] [PUBMED:17220916]
Developmental Biology [NCBI:1270302] [REACTOME:R-HSA-1266738]
Downstream signal transduction [NCBI:1269479] [REACTOME:R-HSA-186763] [PUBMED:10508235] [PUBMED:9739761]
Downstream signaling of activated FGFR1 [NCBI:1269392] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654687] [PUBMED:8752212]
Downstream signaling of activated FGFR2 [NCBI:1269403] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654696] [PUBMED:8752212]
Downstream signaling of activated FGFR3 [NCBI:1269413] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654708] [PUBMED:8752212]
Downstream signaling of activated FGFR4 [NCBI:1269422] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654716] [PUBMED:8752212]
Endocytosis [NCBI:102279] [KEGG:hsa04144] [PUBMED:19696797] [PUBMED:19007773] [PUBMED:16203612] [PUBMED:15687999] [PUBMED:19924646] [PUBMED:15261671] [PUBMED:19325624] [PUBMED:22193161] [PUBMED:18647649] [PUBMED:20110990]
FCERI mediated MAPK activation [NCBI:1269299] [REACTOME:R-HSA-2871796] [PUBMED:19290926] [PUBMED:19909365] [PUBMED:17122878]
FRS-mediated FGFR1 signaling [NCBI:1269393] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654693] [PUBMED:15863030] [PUBMED:11447289] [PUBMED:18452557] [PUBMED:16682955]
FRS-mediated FGFR2 signaling [NCBI:1269404] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654700] [PUBMED:18452557] [PUBMED:11447289] [PUBMED:16682955] [PUBMED:15863030]
FRS-mediated FGFR3 signaling [NCBI:1269414] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654706] [PUBMED:15863030] [PUBMED:11447289] [PUBMED:18452557] [PUBMED:16682955]
FRS-mediated FGFR4 signaling [NCBI:1269423] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654712] [PUBMED:18452557] [PUBMED:11447289] [PUBMED:16682955] [PUBMED:15863030]
Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling [NCBI:1269298] [REACTOME:R-HSA-2454202] [PUBMED:21799019] [PUBMED:15099567]
Frs2-mediated activation [NCBI:1269470] [REACTOME:R-HSA-170968] [PUBMED:9069267]
GRB2 events in EGFR signaling [NCBI:1269382] [REACTOME:R-HSA-179812] [PUBMED:11706405] [PUBMED:11498013]
Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK [NCBI:1269592] [REACTOME:R-HSA-881907] [PUBMED:10413847] [PUBMED:7491953] [PUBMED:17698287]
IGF1R signaling cascade [NCBI:1269618] [REACTOME:R-HSA-2428924] [PUBMED:17598937] [PUBMED:20975071] [PUBMED:22649417] [PUBMED:21042815] [PUBMED:18927274] [PUBMED:20098959]
IRS-mediated signalling [NCBI:1269431] [REACTOME:R-HSA-112399]
IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R [NCBI:1269620] [REACTOME:R-HSA-2428928] [PUBMED:20975071] [PUBMED:17598937] [PUBMED:22649417] [PUBMED:18927274] [PUBMED:21042815] [PUBMED:20098959]
Immune System [NCBI:1269170] [REACTOME:R-HSA-168256]
Innate Immune System [NCBI:1269203] [REACTOME:R-HSA-168249]
Insulin receptor signalling cascade [NCBI:1269429] [REACTOME:R-HSA-74751] [PUBMED:9677303] [PUBMED:11282018]
Interleukin receptor SHC signaling [NCBI:1269322] [REACTOME:R-HSA-912526] [PUBMED:8294403]
Interleukin-2 signaling [NCBI:1269321] [REACTOME:R-HSA-451927] [PUBMED:17936914] [PUBMED:18817510] [PUBMED:18062768] [PUBMED:19543225]
Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling [NCBI:1269323] [REACTOME:R-HSA-512988] [PUBMED:10450743] [PUBMED:9766809]
MAPK family signaling cascades [NCBI:1269501] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5683057] [PUBMED:21167873] [PUBMED:17161475] [PUBMED:22535895] [PUBMED:21372320]
MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling [NCBI:1269502] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5684996] [PUBMED:25378393] [PUBMED:18199641] [PUBMED:17496909] [PUBMED:15520807] [PUBMED:16393692] [PUBMED:19520853] [PUBMED:22569528] [PUBMED:21779496] [PUBMED:17496910]
NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth [NCBI:1270312] [REACTOME:R-HSA-375165] [PUBMED:18760361] [PUBMED:12587671] [PUBMED:15662836] [PUBMED:17975827] [PUBMED:15153429] [PUBMED:12700044]
NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane [NCBI:1269460] [REACTOME:R-HSA-187037] [PUBMED:11520933] [PUBMED:12676795] [PUBMED:10851172] [PUBMED:10579918]
Pathways in cancer [NCBI:83105] [KEGG:hsa05200] [PUBMED:12244301] [PUBMED:16001072] [PUBMED:16699851] [PUBMED:11902573] [PUBMED:16555243] [PUBMED:15156182] [PUBMED:15310786] [PUBMED:21193867] [PUBMED:11707511] [PUBMED:11253051] [PUBMED:12951584] [PUBMED:11071626] [PUBMED:9834202] [PUBMED:15721476] [PUBMED:11895903] [PUBMED:17251915] [PUBMED:11736900] [PUBMED:11477132] [PUBMED:15724144] [PUBMED:10647931] [PUBMED:16700615] [PUBMED:11527574] [PUBMED:16339096] [PUBMED:12545153] [PUBMED:15942304] [PUBMED:16352814] [PUBMED:15656799] [PUBMED:10740269] [PUBMED:16881963] [PUBMED:15978322] [PUBMED:15774796] [PUBMED:17287871] [PUBMED:15557758] [PUBMED:10944551] [PUBMED:11170304] [PUBMED:12154354] [PUBMED:15639402] [PUBMED:16326109] [PUBMED:11276000] [PUBMED:15573119] [PUBMED:15625120] [PUBMED:15109562] [PUBMED:11160144] [PUBMED:15611513] [PUBMED:15349822] [PUBMED:16236521] [PUBMED:14967450] [PUBMED:16551846] [PUBMED:9196022] [PUBMED:12079267] [PUBMED:11130178] [PUBMED:14580692] [PUBMED:14634372] [PUBMED:12407699] [PUBMED:12588368] [PUBMED:15009714] [PUBMED:16001050] [PUBMED:16112428] [PUBMED:9643506] [PUBMED:15468170] [PUBMED:16248975] [PUBMED:12946833] [PUBMED:11057895] [PUBMED:11559746] [PUBMED:16306523] [PUBMED:16064138] [PUBMED:15479695] [PUBMED:11900250] [PUBMED:9422516] [PUBMED:15551095] [PUBMED:17062879] [PUBMED:12894244] [PUBMED:11103787] [PUBMED:12878745] [PUBMED:16702400] [PUBMED:14685170] [PUBMED:16189154] [PUBMED:11720739] [PUBMED:15122209] [PUBMED:11078609] [PUBMED:12243753] [PUBMED:14982876] [PUBMED:16642045] [PUBMED:12563308] [PUBMED:11407945] [PUBMED:14586404] [PUBMED:15270885] [PUBMED:16095998] [PUBMED:15948971] [PUBMED:16484590] [PUBMED:24508914] [PUBMED:12084351] [PUBMED:11459867] [PUBMED:10505543] [PUBMED:15746962] [PUBMED:16146838] [PUBMED:15947972] [PUBMED:15711891] [PUBMED:12094241] [PUBMED:15841168] [PUBMED:11463388] [PUBMED:16474624] [PUBMED:15719031] [PUBMED:10843728] [PUBMED:14556242] [PUBMED:10453277] [PUBMED:11721960] [PUBMED:11905738] [PUBMED:10403855] [PUBMED:12741677] [PUBMED:12616528] [PUBMED:15823750] [PUBMED:12737309] [PUBMED:14695152] [PUBMED:16750612] [PUBMED:11807782] [PUBMED:12351585] [PUBMED:14737121] [PUBMED:12801837] [PUBMED:11431710] [PUBMED:11165748] [PUBMED:11750244] [PUBMED:11224709] [PUBMED:16110317] [PUBMED:16508724] [PUBMED:15948711] [PUBMED:16870043] [PUBMED:7585656] [PUBMED:12379883] [PUBMED:12850530] [PUBMED:10835690] [PUBMED:16551847] [PUBMED:12459728] [PUBMED:14747944] [PUBMED:15000146] [PUBMED:17149381] [PUBMED:17158541] [PUBMED:12468433] [PUBMED:16042571] [PUBMED:16557281] [PUBMED:16899407] [PUBMED:12621137] [PUBMED:16189702] [PUBMED:8069858] [PUBMED:12951588] [PUBMED:16242838] [PUBMED:15082523] [PUBMED:17211469] [PUBMED:12711111] [PUBMED:15284264] [PUBMED:11223406] [PUBMED:12648469] [PUBMED:12867060] [PUBMED:16946003] [PUBMED:12762887] [PUBMED:16054233] [PUBMED:16822996] [PUBMED:17554387] [PUBMED:17028294]
Prolonged ERK activation events [NCBI:1269469] [REACTOME:R-HSA-169893] [PUBMED:12765839] [PUBMED:9069267]
RAF/MAP kinase cascade [NCBI:1269285] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5673001] [PUBMED:21167873] [PUBMED:20674547] [PUBMED:17496910] [PUBMED:24937142] [PUBMED:17496919] [PUBMED:22177953] [PUBMED:12068308] [PUBMED:19091303] [PUBMED:21372320] [PUBMED:17496923] [PUBMED:15520807] [PUBMED:21388974] [PUBMED:22569528] [PUBMED:22535895]
SHC1 events in EGFR signaling [NCBI:1269383] [REACTOME:R-HSA-180336] [PUBMED:11498013] [PUBMED:8755247]
SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling [NCBI:1269497] [REACTOME:R-HSA-1250347]
SIDS Susceptibility Pathways [NCBI:198901] [WikiPathways:WP706] [PUBMED:21836131] [PUBMED:16275016] [PUBMED:18571009] [PUBMED:18633768] [PUBMED:19958302] [PUBMED:20009079] [PUBMED:16846370] [PUBMED:16006741] [PUBMED:19772970] [PUBMED:19120039] [PUBMED:19278673] [PUBMED:7908738] [PUBMED:17142880] [PUBMED:16764822] [PUBMED:17311278] [PUBMED:10575032] [PUBMED:19342987] [PUBMED:18032528] [PUBMED:22179534] [PUBMED:18041756] [PUBMED:18085326] [PUBMED:17568567] [PUBMED:11080175] [PUBMED:21204411] [PUBMED:16938762] [PUBMED:22226696] [PUBMED:19880519] [PUBMED:20847275] [PUBMED:22418790] [PUBMED:2058745] [PUBMED:17869437] [PUBMED:9676432] [PUBMED:18384375] [PUBMED:17556193] [PUBMED:15199055] [PUBMED:8841406] [PUBMED:16916793] [PUBMED:18286597] [PUBMED:15056938] [PUBMED:15584216] [PUBMED:20351659] [PUBMED:9645961] [PUBMED:18792810] [PUBMED:15758173] [PUBMED:14693395] [PUBMED:7745608] [PUBMED:19559077] [PUBMED:19841066] [PUBMED:12599191] [PUBMED:17077377] [PUBMED:18675942] [PUBMED:18234890] [PUBMED:16144830] [PUBMED:18778441] [PUBMED:8957963] [PUBMED:22371606] [PUBMED:20124538] [PUBMED:9038229] [PUBMED:21555452] [PUBMED:21865888] [PUBMED:12393272] [PUBMED:22351881] [PUBMED:12065627] [PUBMED:17101276] [PUBMED:16830328] [PUBMED:10421804] [PUBMED:14575242] [PUBMED:9933599] [PUBMED:18599790] [PUBMED:11335745] [PUBMED:19396608] [PUBMED:18639564] [PUBMED:10197817] [PUBMED:14608012] [PUBMED:18771483] [PUBMED:18045290] [PUBMED:18094064] [PUBMED:16467535] [PUBMED:18192214] [PUBMED:19247214] [PUBMED:9602135] [PUBMED:20209124] [PUBMED:16728402] [PUBMED:10094440] [PUBMED:17613521] [PUBMED:18534229] [PUBMED:17709376] [PUBMED:17360901] [PUBMED:18928334] [PUBMED:19666841] [PUBMED:14741405] [PUBMED:22334710] [PUBMED:14756806] [PUBMED:19369586] [PUBMED:15240857] [PUBMED:18810510] [PUBMED:17597646]
SOS-mediated signalling [NCBI:1269440] [REACTOME:R-HSA-112412]
Signal Transduction [NCBI:1269379] [REACTOME:R-HSA-162582] [PUBMED:19648010] [PUBMED:17604717] [PUBMED:16260143] [PUBMED:11742412] [PUBMED:15863030] [PUBMED:21252999] [PUBMED:19379690] [PUBMED:19536106] [PUBMED:19458711] [PUBMED:19935667] [PUBMED:15450248] [PUBMED:15520807] [PUBMED:16939974] [PUBMED:18483217] [PUBMED:18043707] [PUBMED:19762341] [PUBMED:21781017] [PUBMED:17084981] [PUBMED:19619488] [PUBMED:17496910]
Signaling by EGFR [NCBI:1269380] [REACTOME:R-HSA-177929] [PUBMED:10459005] [PUBMED:10404636] [PUBMED:15142631] [PUBMED:12297041]
Signaling by ERBB4 [NCBI:1269496] [REACTOME:R-HSA-1236394] [PUBMED:9275162] [PUBMED:9168115] [PUBMED:19193720] [PUBMED:16914727] [PUBMED:17545517] [PUBMED:7929212] [PUBMED:17018285] [PUBMED:9135143] [PUBMED:11679632] [PUBMED:15534001] [PUBMED:10744726] [PUBMED:8665853] [PUBMED:18653779] [PUBMED:7565730] [PUBMED:16978839] [PUBMED:15023535] [PUBMED:16061658] [PUBMED:17463226] [PUBMED:9556621] [PUBMED:18721752] [PUBMED:19047365] [PUBMED:12807903] [PUBMED:12869563] [PUBMED:10867024] [PUBMED:16778220] [PUBMED:16912174] [PUBMED:1706616] [PUBMED:8617750] [PUBMED:10722704]
Signaling by FGFR [NCBI:1269386] [REACTOME:R-HSA-190236] [PUBMED:12080084] [PUBMED:20602996] [PUBMED:15863030] [PUBMED:15567848] [PUBMED:7917292] [PUBMED:19247306] [PUBMED:16597617] [PUBMED:15863038]
Signaling by FGFR1 [NCBI:1269387] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654736] [PUBMED:16597617] [PUBMED:19247306] [PUBMED:12080084] [PUBMED:15863038] [PUBMED:20602996] [PUBMED:15567848] [PUBMED:15863030] [PUBMED:7917292]
Signaling by FGFR2 [NCBI:1269399] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654738] [PUBMED:16597617] [PUBMED:19247306] [PUBMED:15863038] [PUBMED:12080084] [PUBMED:15863030] [PUBMED:20602996] [PUBMED:15567848] [PUBMED:7917292]
Signaling by FGFR3 [NCBI:1269409] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654741] [PUBMED:19247306] [PUBMED:16597617] [PUBMED:15863038] [PUBMED:12080084] [PUBMED:20602996] [PUBMED:15567848] [PUBMED:15863030] [PUBMED:7917292]
Signaling by FGFR4 [NCBI:1269419] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5654743] [PUBMED:12080084] [PUBMED:15863038] [PUBMED:7917292] [PUBMED:15863030] [PUBMED:19247306] [PUBMED:16597617] [PUBMED:15567848] [PUBMED:20602996]
Signaling by GPCR [NCBI:1269543] [REACTOME:R-HSA-372790] [PUBMED:16902930] [PUBMED:10202136] [PUBMED:18043707]
Signaling by Insulin receptor [NCBI:1269428] [REACTOME:R-HSA-74752] [PUBMED:8276779]
Signaling by Interleukins [NCBI:1269318] [REACTOME:R-HSA-449147] [PUBMED:19302047] [PUBMED:12445398]
Signaling by Leptin [NCBI:1269632] [REACTOME:R-HSA-2586552] [PUBMED:23562747] [PUBMED:22458591] [PUBMED:22211890] [PUBMED:20600241] [PUBMED:23579596] [PUBMED:21489811] [PUBMED:21622208] [PUBMED:22448029] [PUBMED:21147620] [PUBMED:21331644] [PUBMED:21677426] [PUBMED:22249808] [PUBMED:20029269] [PUBMED:17937601] [PUBMED:21527729] [PUBMED:22991412] [PUBMED:22289780] [PUBMED:20553370] [PUBMED:23565489] [PUBMED:19724019] [PUBMED:20198122] [PUBMED:21713385]
Signaling by PDGF [NCBI:1269478] [REACTOME:R-HSA-186797] [PUBMED:15207811] [PUBMED:10508235] [PUBMED:9739761]
Signaling by SCF-KIT [NCBI:1269487] [REACTOME:R-HSA-1433557] [PUBMED:16483568] [PUBMED:7688988] [PUBMED:16475976] [PUBMED:19540337] [PUBMED:15526160] [PUBMED:17350321]
Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) [NCBI:1269617] [REACTOME:R-HSA-2404192] [PUBMED:18927274] [PUBMED:20098959] [PUBMED:21042815] [PUBMED:17598937] [PUBMED:20975071] [PUBMED:22044904] [PUBMED:22649417]
Signaling by VEGF [NCBI:1269480] [REACTOME:R-HSA-194138] [PUBMED:15585754] [PUBMED:13678960] [PUBMED:16336962] [PUBMED:16835467]
Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase [NCBI:137915] [Pathway Interaction Database:ret_pathway] [PUBMED:11002419] [PUBMED:11360177] [PUBMED:17050626] [PUBMED:7478523] [PUBMED:14607833] [PUBMED:12771945] [PUBMED:8631863] [PUBMED:15966897] [PUBMED:7665556] [PUBMED:12176011] [PUBMED:11470823] [PUBMED:12087092] [PUBMED:15657578] [PUBMED:16820412] [PUBMED:10208419] [PUBMED:9182757] [PUBMED:15569713] [PUBMED:8674117] [PUBMED:9047383] [PUBMED:10448070] [PUBMED:16227613] [PUBMED:15351743] [PUBMED:12063395] [PUBMED:11390647] [PUBMED:11000521] [PUBMED:9632781] [PUBMED:11313948] [PUBMED:2181380] [PUBMED:8570170] [PUBMED:16153436] [PUBMED:11886862] [PUBMED:8662982] [PUBMED:15286081] [PUBMED:9047384]
Signalling by NGF [NCBI:1269443] [REACTOME:R-HSA-166520]
Signalling to ERKs [NCBI:1269464] [REACTOME:R-HSA-187687] [PUBMED:10508738]
Signalling to RAS [NCBI:1269465] [REACTOME:R-HSA-167044] [PUBMED:11520933]
Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN [NCBI:1269468] [REACTOME:R-HSA-187706] [PUBMED:10712923]
Thyroid cancer [NCBI:83112] [KEGG:hsa05216] [PUBMED:16189702] [PUBMED:16557281] [PUBMED:16242838] [PUBMED:12094241] [PUBMED:16551846] [PUBMED:11165748] [PUBMED:16946003] [PUBMED:17062879]
VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway [NCBI:1269483] [REACTOME:R-HSA-4420097] [PUBMED:16633338] [PUBMED:17344076] [PUBMED:13678960] [PUBMED:19230644]
VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation [NCBI:1269485] [REACTOME:R-HSA-5218921] [PUBMED:22180219] [PUBMED:22762016] [PUBMED:22866201]