description
Autophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and exquisitely regulated. This progress initiates with production of the autophagosome, a double-membrane intracellular structure of reticular origin that engulfs cytoplasmic contents and ultimately fuses with lysosomes for cargo degradation. Autophagy is regulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation and ER stress. Constitutive level of autophagy plays an important role in cellular homeostasis and maintains quality control of essential cellular components

external resources
NCBI:83058
KEGG:hsa04140
PUBMED:16200202
PUBMED:15325588
PUBMED:24343578
PUBMED:15978794
PUBMED:19802558
PUBMED:16099218
PUBMED:11099404
PUBMED:19653858
PUBMED:15325584
PUBMED:20034776
PUBMED:15928708
PUBMED:21801009
PUBMED:25948417
PUBMED:16125113
PUBMED:21187343

genes
AKT1 , AKT2 , BAD , BCL2 , BCL2L1 , BNIP3 , CTSB , CTSD , CTSL , DAPK1 , DAPK3 , EIF2S1 , ERN1 , MTOR , HIF1A , HMGB1 , HRAS , IGBP1 , IGF1R , INS , IRS1 , ITPR1 , KRAS , LAMP1 , LAMP2 , NRAS , PDPK1 , PIK3C3 , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PPP2CA , PPP2CB , PRKAA1 , PRKAA2 , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKCD , PRKCQ , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK8 , MAPK9 , MAPK10 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , PTEN , RAF1 , RHEB , RPS6KB1 , RPS6KB2 , RRAS , STK11 , MAP3K7 , TRAF6 , TSC1 , TSC2 , UVRAG , RAB7A , ULK1 , IRS4 , PIK3R3 , IRS2 , VAMP8 , BECN1 , CFLAR , MTMR3 , MTMR4 , ATG12 , SNAP29 , EIF2AK3 , ATG5 , ULK2 , RUBCN , ATG13 , RB1CC1 , AKT3 , RRAGB , ATG7 , CAMKK2 , RRAGA , GABARAP , GABARAPL2 , RRAS2 , MRAS , ATG14 , ATG2A , ATG4B , DAPK2 , GABARAPL1 , WIPI2 , NRBF2 , PIK3R4 , SH3GLB1 , ZFYVE1 , DDIT4 , STX17 , ATG16L1 , WIPI1 , ATG2B , SUPT20H , AMBRA1 , RPTOR , TP53INP2 , RRAGD , ATG101 , RRAGC , MLST8 , MTMR14 , ATG3 , DEPTOR , ATG9A , VMP1 , RAB33B , ATG10 , AKT1S1 , ATG4C , ATG4D , ATG16L2 , ATG4A , PRAP1 , ATG9B , EIF2AK4 , BECN2 ,