description
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species ranging from worms and insects to mammals. A wide spectrum of cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration are regulated by TGF-beta family members. TGF-beta family member binds to the Type II receptor and recruits Type I, whereby Type II receptor phosphorylates and activates Type I. The Type I receptor, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-activated Smads ( R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8). Once phosphorylated, R-Smads associate with the co-mediator Smad, Smad4, and the heteromeric complex then translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, Smad complexes activate specific genes through cooperative interactions with other DNA-binding and coactivator (or co-repressor) proteins

external resources
NCBI:83064
KEGG:hsa04350
PUBMED:11836504
PUBMED:14534577
PUBMED:10021351
PUBMED:12809600
PUBMED:14557817
PUBMED:14769828
PUBMED:10519551
PUBMED:12163231
PUBMED:19758997
PUBMED:12466190
PUBMED:11252746
PUBMED:15063168
PUBMED:9847239
PUBMED:11252892

genes
ACVR1 , ACVR1B , ACVR2A , ACVR2B , AMH , AMHR2 , RHOA , BMP2 , BMP4 , BMP5 , BMP6 , BMP7 , BMP8B , BMPR1A , BMPR1B , BMPR2 , CDKN2B , CREBBP , DCN , E2F4 , E2F5 , EP300 , ID1 , ID2 , ID3 , ID4 , IFNG , INHBA , INHBB , INHBC , LTBP1 , SMAD1 , SMAD2 , SMAD3 , SMAD4 , SMAD5 , SMAD6 , SMAD7 , SMAD9 , MYC , NBL1 , NODAL , PITX2 , PPP2CA , PPP2CB , PPP2R1A , PPP2R1B , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , RBL1 , ROCK1 , RPS6KB1 , RPS6KB2 , SKP1 , SP1 , TFDP1 , TGFB1 , TGFB2 , TGFB3 , LEFTY2 , TGFBR1 , TGFBR2 , TGIF1 , THBS1 , TNF , GDF5 , CUL1 , CHRD , NOG , ZFYVE9 , ZFYVE16 , RBX1 , FST , LEFTY1 , BAMBI , SMURF1 , TGIF2 , SMURF2 , INHBE , ACVR1C , GDF7 , BMP8A , GDF6 , MINOS1-NBL1 ,