description
Axon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, which senses the guidance cues in the environment through guidance cue receptors and responds by undergoing cytoskeletal changes that determine the direction of axon growth. Guidance cues present in the surrounding environment provide the necessary directional information for the trip. These extrinsic cues have been divided into attractive or repulsive signals that tell the growth cone where and where not to grow. Genetic and biochemical studies have led to the identification of highly conserved families of guidance molecules and their receptors that guide axons. These include netrins, Slits, semaphorins, and ephrins, and their cognate receptors, DCC and or uncoordinated-5 (UNC5), roundabouts (Robo), neuropilin and Eph. In addition, many other classes of adhesion molecules are also used by growth cones to navigate properly which include NCAM and L1CAM

external resources
NCBI:83065
KEGG:hsa04360
NCBI:1270303
REACTOME:R-HSA-422475
PUBMED:14682358
PUBMED:15084255
PUBMED:11687826
PUBMED:15818466
PUBMED:15363605
PUBMED:12471249
PUBMED:15630019
PUBMED:11891122
PUBMED:15960985
PUBMED:12677003

genes
ABL1 , RHOA , BMP7 , BMPR1B , BMPR2 , CAMK2A , CAMK2B , CAMK2D , CAMK2G , CDC42 , CDK5 , CFL1 , CFL2 , DCC , DPYSL2 , EFNA1 , EFNA2 , EFNA3 , EFNA4 , EFNA5 , EFNB1 , EFNB2 , EFNB3 , EPHA2 , EPHA1 , EPHA3 , EPHA4 , EPHA5 , EPHA7 , EPHA8 , EPHB1 , EPHB2 , EPHB3 , EPHB4 , EPHB6 , FES , FYN , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GSK3B , HRAS , ILK , ITGB1 , KRAS , L1CAM , ABLIM1 , LIMK1 , LIMK2 , MET , NCK1 , NFATC2 , NFATC3 , NFATC4 , NRAS , NTN3 , PAK1 , PAK2 , PAK3 , PDK1 , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLCG1 , PLCG2 , PLXNA1 , PLXNA2 , PLXNB1 , PLXNB3 , PPP3CA , PPP3CB , PPP3CC , PPP3R1 , PPP3R2 , PRKCA , PRKCZ , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , PTCH1 , PTK2 , PTPN11 , RAC1 , RAC2 , RAC3 , RAF1 , RASA1 , RGS3 , ROBO1 , ROBO2 , ROCK1 , RRAS , RYK , CXCL12 , SEMA3F , SHH , SLIT1 , SLIT3 , SMO , SRC , TRPC1 , TRPC3 , TRPC4 , TRPC5 , TRPC6 , WNT5A , CXCR4 , SEMA3B , FZD3 , NCK2 , SEMA7A , PIK3R3 , UNC5C , NRP1 , SEMA5A , SLIT2 , NTN1 , ROCK2 , SEMA3E , SRGAP3 , PLXNC1 , PAK4 , SEMA3A , SEMA6C , SEMA6B , SEMA4F , SEMA4D , SEMA4B , SEMA3C , NTNG1 , ABLIM3 , ARHGEF12 , SRGAP2 , PLXNB2 , NGEF , RND1 , RHOD , PARD6A , WNT4 , SSH1 , SEMA5B , SEMA4C , SSH3 , PLXNA3 , ENAH , PARD3 , DPYSL5 , SEMA3G , PAK6 , PAK5 , SRGAP1 , SEMA6A , LRRC4C , SEMA4G , NTN4 , LRRC4 , SEMA4A , ROBO3 , SEMA6D , WNT5B , ABLIM2 , PARD6G , PARD6B , NTNG2 , SSH2 , UNC5A , PLXNA4 , BOC , UNC5D , GDF7 , UNC5B , SEMA3D , EPHA6 , ABL2 , ACTB , ACTG1 , ACTN2 , ADAM10 , AP2A1 , AP2A2 , AP2B1 , ALCAM , ANGPT1 , ANK1 , ANK2 , ANK3 , ARAF , RHOB , RHOC , RHOG , ARRB1 , ARRB2 , BRAF , BTC , CACNA1C , CACNA1D , CACNA1S , CACNB1 , CACNB2 , CACNB3 , CACNB4 , CALM1 , CALM2 , CALM3 , CD72 , AP2M1 , AP2S1 , CLTA , CLTB , CLTC , CNTN1 , COL4A1 , COL4A2 , COL4A3 , COL4A4 , COL4A5 , COL6A1 , COL6A2 , COL6A3 , COL9A1 , COL9A2 , COL9A3 , CREB1 , CRMP1 , CSF2 , CSF2RA , CSF2RB , CSK , CSNK2A1 , CSNK2A2 , CSNK2B , NCAN , DCX , DLG1 , DLG3 , DLG4 , DNM1 , DNM2 , DOCK1 , DOK1 , DPYSL3 , HBEGF , DUSP1 , DUSP2 , DUSP4 , DUSP5 , DUSP6 , DUSP7 , DUSP8 , DUSP9 , EGF , EGFR , ERBB2 , ERBB3 , ERBB4 , EREG , FGA , FGB , FGF1 , FGF2 , FGF3 , FGF4 , FGF5 , FGF6 , FGF7 , FGF8 , FGF9 , FGF10 , FGFR1 , FGFR3 , FGFR2 , FGFR4 , FGG , FN1 , GAB1 , GAP43 , GDNF , GFRA1 , GFRA2 , GFRA3 , GPC1 , GRB2 , GRB7 , GRB10 , GRIN1 , GRIN2A , GRIN2B , GRIN2C , GRIN2D , ARHGAP35 , HGF , NRG1 , HSPA8 , HSP90AA1 , HSP90AB1 , IL2 , IL2RA , IL2RB , IL2RG , IL3 , IL3RA , IL5 , IL5RA , IRS1 , ITGA1 , ITGA2 , ITGA2B , ITGA5 , ITGA9 , ITGAV , ITGB3 , JAK1 , JAK2 , JAK3 , KCNQ2 , KCNQ3 , KDR , KIT , LAMB1 , LAMC1 , LYN , MARK3 , KITLG , MAP3K11 , MMP2 , MMP9 , MSN , MYH9 , MYH10 , MYH11 , MYL6 , MYO10 , NCAM1 , NEFL , NEO1 , NF1 , NRCAM , NRTN , PEBP1 , PDGFA , PDGFB , PDGFRA , PDGFRB , PFN1 , PFN2 , PHB , PITPNA , PPP2CA , PPP2CB , PPP2R1A , PPP2R1B , PPP2R5A , PPP2R5B , PPP2R5C , PPP2R5D , PPP2R5E , PPP5C , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKCQ , MAPK7 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , PRNP , PSPN , PSEN2 , PSMA1 , PSMA2 , PSMA3 , PSMA4 , PSMA5 , PSMA6 , PSMA7 , PSMB1 , PSMB2 , PSMB3 , PSMB4 , PSMB5 , PSMB6 , PSMB7 , PSMB8 , PSMB9 , PSMB10 , PSMC1 , PSMC2 , PSMC3 , PSMC4 , PSMC5 , PSMC6 , PSMD1 , PSMD2 , PSMD3 , PSMD4 , PSMD5 , PSMD7 , PSMD8 , PSMD9 , PSMD10 , PSMD11 , PSMD12 , PSMD13 , PSME1 , PSME2 , PTPRA , PTPRC , RAP1A , RAP1B , RAP1GAP , RASA2 , RASGRF1 , RASGRF2 , RDX , RET , RPS6KA1 , RPS6KA2 , RPS6KA3 , RPS27A , SCN1A , SCN1B , SCN2A , SCN2B , SCN3A , SCN4A , SCN4B , SCN5A , SCN7A , SCN8A , SCN9A , SCN10A , SDC2 , SDCBP , ITSN1 , SH3GL2 , SHB , SHC1 , SIAH1 , SIAH2 , SOS1 , SOS2 , SPTA1 , SPTAN1 , SPTB , SPTBN1 , SPTBN2 , CNTN2 , TEK , TIAM1 , TLN1 , TRIO , TYROBP , UBA52 , UBB , UBC , VASP , VAV2 , VCL , VEGFA , EZR , VWF , YES1 , YWHAB , ST8SIA4 , SEM1 , FGF23 , ST8SIA2 , CLTCL1 , BRAP , RASAL1 , CUL3 , CNTNAP1 , ITGA10 , LAMTOR3 , NUMB , IRS2 , PEA15 , FGF18 , FGF17 , FGF16 , IQGAP1 , NRP2 , SYNGAP1 , KSR1 , CDK5R1 , ARHGEF7 , CACNA1I , CACNA1H , CACNA1G , WASL , RPS6KA4 , KALRN , DOK2 , ARTN , RPS6KA5 , PDLIM7 , KL , RASAL2 , PSMF1 , NRG2 , RAPGEF2 , ARHGEF11 , GAB2 , FARP2 , PSMD6 , FGF19 , RBX1 , RANBP9 , ARPC5 , ARPC4 , ARPC3 , ARPC1B , ACTR3 , ACTR2 , ARPC2 , RASGRP1 , AKAP9 , RASA4 , PSME3 , PSMD14 , CNKSR1 , MYL9 , VAV3 , CAP2 , CAP1 , ARPC1A , DPYSL4 , MYL12A , NRG3 , CHL1 , FRS3 , FRS2 , DUSP10 , SCN11A , LYPLA2 , RASA3 , CNKSR2 , NFASC , CLASP2 , PLXND1 , PSME4 , CLASP1 , NCSTN , PIP5K1C , KIF4A , SHC2 , RASGRP3 , DNM3 , FGF20 , FGF22 , LAT , CNTN6 , RPS6KA6 , LAMTOR2 , GIT1 , APH1A , SPTBN5 , EVL , SHC3 , TREM2 , APBB1IP , IL17RD , DOK4 , SCN3B , DOK5 , PSENEN , RGMA , TRPC7 , SHTN1 , SPTBN4 , GFRA4 , ARHGEF28 , RASAL3 , MYH14 , ARHGAP39 , DUSP16 , APH1B , KBTBD7 , WDR83 , SHANK3 , MYL12B , RASGRP4 , AGAP2 , PSMB11 , COL6A6 , PSMA8 , NRG4 , HJV , PAQR3 , KLB , DAB2IP , SPRED1 , SPRED2 , DOK6 , RASGEF1A , COL6A5 , KSR2 , LAMA1 , EPHA10 , KIF4B , RGMB , AGRN , SPRED3 , C7orf76 , LOC100506136 , MIR5004 ,