description
The ability to process xenobiotica and many endogenous compounds is called biotransformation and is catalysed by enzymes mainly in the liver of higher organisms but also a number of other organs such as kidneys, gut and lungs. Metabolism occurs in two stages; phase 1 functionalisation and phase 2 conjugation. Defects in enzymes in these two phases can lead to disease (Nebert et al. 2013, Pikuleva & Waterman 2013, Zanger & Schwab 2013, Mudd 2013, Messenger et al. 2013, Aoyama & Nakaki 2013, Shih 2004, Millington 2013, Azimi et al. 2014, Sticova & Jirsa 2013)

external resources
NCBI:1268977
REACTOME:R-HSA-5579029
PUBMED:23333322
PUBMED:14697877
PUBMED:24307925
PUBMED:21308989
PUBMED:23297354
PUBMED:24151358
PUBMED:24734162
PUBMED:23632021
PUBMED:24145751
PUBMED:23252752

genes
CYP11A1 , FDX1 , FDXR , MC2R , POMC , FDX2 ,