description
Cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs), the most common type of intercellular adhesions, are important for maintaining tissue architecture and cell polarity and can limit cell movement and proliferation. At AJs, E-cadherin serves as an essential cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). The cytoplasmic tail binds beta-catenin, which in turn binds alpha-catenin. Alpha-catenin is associated with F-actin bundles directly and indirectly. The integrity of the cadherin-catenin complex is negatively regulated by phosphorylation of beta-catenin by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases (Fer, Fyn, Yes, and Src), which leads to dissociation of the cadherin-catenin complex. Integrity of this complex is positively regulated by beta -catenin phosphorylation by casein kinase II, and dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases. Changes in the phosphorylation state of beta-catenin affect cell-cell adhesion, cell migration and the level of signaling beta-catenin. Wnt signaling acts as a positive regulator of beta-catenin by inhibiting beta-catenin degradation, which stabilizes beta-catenin, and causes its accumulation. Cadherin may acts as a negative regulator of signaling beta-catenin as it binds beta-catenin at the cell surface and thereby sequesters it from the nucleus. Nectins also function as CAMs at AJs, but are more highly concentrated at AJs than E-cadherin. Nectins transduce signals through Cdc42 and Rac, which reorganize the actin cytoskeleton, regulate the formation of AJs, and strengthen cell-cell adhesion

external resources
NCBI:83070
KEGG:hsa04520
PUBMED:11703922
PUBMED:10890911
PUBMED:15551862
PUBMED:15561584
PUBMED:10959047
PUBMED:11984870
PUBMED:10204118
PUBMED:15489912
PUBMED:14623871
PUBMED:15001769
PUBMED:12640114
PUBMED:12665527
PUBMED:11171368

genes
ACP1 , ACTB , ACTG1 , ACTN4 , ACTN1 , RHOA , CDC42 , CDH1 , CREBBP , CSNK2A1 , CSNK2A2 , CSNK2B , CTNNA1 , CTNNA2 , CTNNB1 , CTNND1 , EGFR , EP300 , ERBB2 , FER , FGFR1 , FYN , IGF1R , INSR , LMO7 , SMAD2 , SMAD3 , SMAD4 , MET , AFDN , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , PTPN1 , PTPN6 , PTPRB , PTPRF , PTPRJ , PTPRM , NECTIN1 , NECTIN2 , RAC1 , RAC2 , RAC3 , SNAI2 , SNAI1 , SRC , MAP3K7 , TCF7 , TCF7L2 , TGFBR1 , TGFBR2 , TJP1 , VCL , WAS , YES1 , IQGAP1 , WASF1 , WASL , FARP2 , WASF2 , BAIAP2 , SORBS1 , WASF3 , NECTIN3 , CTNNA3 , LEF1 , NLK , PARD3 , NECTIN4 , TCF7L1 , SSX2IP , CSNK2A3 ,