description
Specific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors identified as homologs of Toll in Drosophila. Mammalian TLRs are expressed on innate immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and respond to the membrane components of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Pathogen recognition by TLRs provokes rapid activation of innate immunity by inducing production of proinflammatory cytokines and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. TLR signaling pathways are separated into two groups: a MyD88-dependent pathway that leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines with quick activation of NF-{kappa}B and MAPK, and a MyD88-independent pathway associated with the induction of IFN-beta and IFN-inducible genes, and maturation of dendritic cells with slow activation of NF-{kappa}B and MAPK

external resources
NCBI:83076
KEGG:hsa04620
PUBMED:16924467
PUBMED:17395581
PUBMED:17637696
PUBMED:12734364
PUBMED:17507094
PUBMED:14698224
PUBMED:11101877
PUBMED:16497588
PUBMED:14751764
PUBMED:17275323
PUBMED:17457343
PUBMED:16932750

genes
AKT1 , AKT2 , CASP8 , CD14 , CD80 , CD86 , CD40 , CHUK , MAP3K8 , MAPK14 , CTSK , FOS , IFNA1 , IFNA2 , IFNA4 , IFNA5 , IFNA6 , IFNA7 , IFNA8 , IFNA10 , IFNA13 , IFNA14 , IFNA16 , IFNA17 , IFNA21 , IFNAR1 , IFNAR2 , IFNB1 , IKBKB , IL1B , IL6 , CXCL8 , IL12A , IL12B , CXCL10 , IRAK1 , IRF3 , IRF5 , IRF7 , JUN , LBP , CXCL9 , MYD88 , NFKB1 , NFKBIA , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK8 , MAPK11 , MAPK9 , MAPK10 , MAPK13 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , MAP2K3 , MAP2K6 , MAP2K7 , RAC1 , RELA , MAPK12 , CCL3 , CCL3L1 , CCL4 , CCL5 , CXCL11 , MAP2K4 , SPP1 , STAT1 , MAP3K7 , TLR1 , TLR2 , TLR3 , TLR4 , TLR5 , TNF , TRAF3 , TRAF6 , PIK3R3 , IKBKG , RIPK1 , FADD , CCL4L2 , IKBKE , AKT3 , TLR6 , TAB1 , TAB2 , LY96 , TBK1 , IRAK4 , TLR7 , TLR8 , TLR9 , TOLLIP , TIRAP , TICAM1 , TICAM2 , CCL4L2 , CCL3L3 ,