description
Activation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. Engagement of these receptors through the interaction with a foreign antigen associated with major histocompatibility complex molecules and CD28 counter-receptors B7.1/B7.2, respectively, results in a series of signaling cascades. These cascades comprise an array of protein-tyrosine kinases, phosphatases, GTP-binding proteins and adaptor proteins that regulate generic and specialised functions, leading to T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and differentiation into effector cells

external resources
NCBI:83080
KEGG:hsa04660
PUBMED:17395537
PUBMED:15308211
PUBMED:15928679
PUBMED:14656980
PUBMED:17187070
PUBMED:15084594
PUBMED:16799472
PUBMED:12669022
PUBMED:15286727
PUBMED:15122199
PUBMED:19132916
PUBMED:15489916
PUBMED:11905831
PUBMED:12195013
PUBMED:15343367
PUBMED:12133805
PUBMED:14647476
PUBMED:15771581
PUBMED:15099566
PUBMED:14617194
PUBMED:19290929
PUBMED:15345216

genes
AKT1 , AKT2 , RHOA , CBL , CBLB , CD3D , CD3E , CD3G , CD247 , CD4 , CD8A , CD8B , CD28 , CD40LG , CDC42 , CDK4 , CHUK , MAP3K8 , MAPK14 , CSF2 , CTLA4 , DLG1 , FOS , FYN , GRB2 , GSK3B , HRAS , IFNG , IKBKB , IL2 , IL4 , IL5 , IL10 , ITK , JUN , KRAS , LCK , LCP2 , NCK1 , NFATC1 , NFATC2 , NFATC3 , NFKB1 , NFKBIA , NFKBIB , NFKBIE , NRAS , PAK1 , PAK2 , PAK3 , PDCD1 , PDPK1 , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLCG1 , PPP3CA , PPP3CB , PPP3CC , PPP3R1 , PPP3R2 , PRKCQ , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK11 , MAPK9 , MAPK13 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , MAP2K7 , PTPN6 , PTPRC , RAF1 , RELA , MAPK12 , SOS1 , SOS2 , MAP3K7 , TEC , TNF , VAV1 , VAV2 , ZAP70 , NCK2 , PIK3R3 , IKBKG , BCL10 , MAP3K14 , GRAP2 , AKT3 , RASGRP1 , PAK4 , VAV3 , MALT1 , CBLC , LAT , ICOS , PAK6 , PAK5 , CARD11 ,