description
Botulinum toxin type D (BoNT/D) is only very rarely associated with human disease (Hatheway 1995) and a pathway by which it might enter the circulation from the human gut has not been described. Nevertheless, the toxin itself, a disulfide-bonded heavy chain (HC) - light chain (LC) heterodimer (?dichain?), is capable of binding to neurons by interactions with cell surface ganglioside (Kroken et al. 2011) and synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) (Peng et al. 2011), the bound toxin can enter synaptic vesicles and release its LC moiety into the cytosol of targeted cells (Montal 2010), and the BoNT/D LC can cleave vesicle associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (VAMP1 and 2) on the cytosolic face of the synaptic vesicle membrane (Schiavo et al. 1993; Yamasaki et al. 1994). These four events are annotated here

external resources
NCBI:1269151
REACTOME:R-HSA-5250955
PUBMED:21483489
PUBMED:8226912
PUBMED:20233039
PUBMED:8175689
PUBMED:21632541
PUBMED:8542759

genes
VAMP1 , VAMP2 , SV2B , SV2A , SV2C ,