Diphtheria is a serious, often fatal human disease associated with damage to many tissues. Bacteria in infected individuals, however, are typically confined to the lining of the throat or to a skin lesion; systemic effects are due to the secretion of an exotoxin encoded by a lysogenic bacteriophage. The toxin is encoded as a single polypeptide but is cleaved by host furin-like proteases to yield an aminoterminal fragment A and a carboxyterminal fragment B, linked by a disulfide bond. Toxin cleavage can occur when it first contacts the target cell surface, as annotated here, or as late as the point at which fragment A is released into the cytosol. Fragment B mediates toxin uptake into target cell endocytic vesicles, where acidification promotes a conformational change enabling fragment B to form a channel in the vesicle membrane through which fragment A is extruded into the target cell cytosol. Cleavage of the inter-fragment disulfide bond frees DT fragment A, which catalyzes ADP ribosylation of the translation elongation factor 2 (EEF2) in a target cell, thereby blocking protein synthesis. Neither fragment is toxic to human cells by itself (Collier 1975; Pappenheim 1977; Murphy 2011)

external resources

CD9 , HBEGF , EEF2 , HSP90AA1 , HSP90AB1 , TXNRD1 ,