description
In human, ten members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1-TLR10) have been identified (TLR11 has been found in mouse, but not in human). All TLRs have a similar Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain in their cytoplasmic region and an Ig-like domain in the extracellular region, where each is enriched with a varying number of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Each TLR can recognize specific microbial pathogen components. The binding pathogenic component to TLR initializes signaling pathways that lead to induction of Interferon alpha/beta and inflammatory cytokines. There are two main signaling pathways. The first is a MyD88-dependent pathway that is common to all TLRs, except TLR3; the second is a TRIF(TICAM1)-dependent pathway that is peculiar to TLR3 and TLR4. TLR4-mediated signaling pathway via TRIF requires adapter molecule TRAM (TRIF-related adapter molecule or TICAM2). TRAM is thought to bridge between the activated TLR4 complex and TRIF.(Takeda & Akira 2004; Akira 2003; Takeda & Akira 2005; Kawai 2005; Heine & Ulmer 2005)

external resources
NCBI:1269204
REACTOME:R-HSA-168898
PUBMED:15950447
PUBMED:12893815
PUBMED:15976490
PUBMED:15585605
PUBMED:14751757

genes
AGER , BIRC2 , BIRC3 , APOB , APP , ATF1 , BPI , BTK , CASP8 , CD14 , CD36 , CHUK , MAP3K8 , CREB1 , ATF2 , MAPK14 , CTSB , CTSK , CTSL , CTSV , CTSS , DHX9 , DNM1 , DNM2 , DUSP3 , DUSP4 , DUSP6 , DUSP7 , ELK1 , FGA , FGB , FGG , FOS , HMGB1 , IKBKB , IRAK1 , IRAK2 , IRF3 , IRF7 , ITGAM , ITGB2 , JUN , LBP , CD180 , MEF2A , MEF2C , MAP3K1 , MYD88 , NFKB1 , NFKB2 , NFKBIA , NFKBIB , PIK3C3 , PLCG2 , PPP2CA , PPP2CB , PPP2R1A , PPP2R1B , PPP2R5D , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK7 , MAPK8 , MAPK11 , MAPK9 , MAPK10 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K3 , MAP2K6 , MAP2K7 , LGMN , PTPN4 , PTPN11 , RELA , RPS6KA1 , RPS6KA2 , RPS6KA3 , RPS27A , S100A1 , S100A8 , S100A9 , S100A12 , S100B , SAA1 , MAP2K4 , SKP1 , MAP3K7 , TLR1 , TLR2 , TLR3 , TLR4 , TLR5 , HSP90B1 , TRAF3 , TRAF6 , UBA52 , UBB , UBC , UBE2D1 , UBE2D2 , UBE2D3 , UBE2N , UBE2V1 , MAPKAPK3 , EEA1 , CUL1 , IKBKG , SOCS1 , RIPK1 , RIPK2 , FADD , BTRC , RPS6KA5 , MAPKAPK2 , LY86 , IKBKE , TANK , TLR6 , NOD1 , TAB1 , CNPY3 , RIPK3 , IRAK3 , SARM1 , TAB2 , FBXW11 , LY96 , DNM3 , TBK1 , PIK3R4 , IRAK4 , VRK3 , TLR7 , ECSIT , TLR8 , TLR9 , PELI2 , PELI1 , SIGIRR , NOD2 , RBSN , TNIP2 , UNC93B1 , TLR10 , TIRAP , TICAM1 , DHX36 , PELI3 , TAB3 , TICAM2 , MIR718 , MIR3652 ,