description
RNA can serve as a danger signal, both in its double-stranded form (that is associated with viral infection), as well as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Specifically, guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich ssRNA oligonucleotides derived from human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), for example, stimulate dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages to secrete interferon-alpha and proinflammatory, as well as regulatory, cytokines. This has been found to be mediated by TLR7, as well as TLR8. Separate studies showed that imidazoquinoline compounds (e.g. imiquimod and R-848, low-molecular-weight immune response modifiers that can induce the synthesis of interferon-alpha) also exert their effects in a MyD88-dependent fashion independently through TLR7 and 8 (Heil et al. 2004)

external resources
NCBI:1269227
REACTOME:R-HSA-168181
PUBMED:14976262

genes
AGER , APP , ATF1 , CD14 , CHUK , MAP3K8 , CREB1 , ATF2 , MAPK14 , DHX9 , DUSP3 , DUSP4 , DUSP6 , DUSP7 , ELK1 , FOS , HMGB1 , IKBKB , IRAK1 , IRAK2 , IRF7 , JUN , MEF2A , MEF2C , MAP3K1 , MYD88 , NFKB1 , NFKB2 , NFKBIA , NFKBIB , PPP2CA , PPP2CB , PPP2R1A , PPP2R1B , PPP2R5D , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK7 , MAPK8 , MAPK11 , MAPK9 , MAPK10 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K3 , MAP2K6 , MAP2K7 , RELA , RPS6KA1 , RPS6KA2 , RPS6KA3 , RPS27A , S100A12 , S100B , SAA1 , MAP2K4 , SKP1 , MAP3K7 , TLR3 , TLR4 , TRAF6 , UBA52 , UBB , UBC , UBE2N , UBE2V1 , MAPKAPK3 , CUL1 , IKBKG , RIPK2 , BTRC , RPS6KA5 , MAPKAPK2 , NOD1 , TAB1 , TAB2 , FBXW11 , LY96 , IRAK4 , VRK3 , TLR7 , ECSIT , TLR8 , TLR9 , PELI2 , PELI1 , NOD2 , TNIP2 , TICAM1 , DHX36 , PELI3 , TAB3 , TICAM2 , MIR718 ,