description
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder that results primarily from the death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Mutations in alpha-synuclein, UCHL1 (a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1), parkin, DJ1 (a parkin-associated protein involved with oxidative stress), and PINK1 (a putative serine threonine kinase) are known to cause early-onset PD. Mutations or altered expression of these proteins contributes to the damage and subsequent loss of DA neurons through common mechanisms that result in proteasome dysfunction, mitochondrial impairment, and oxidative stress. The demise of DA neurons located in the SNc leads to a drop in the dopaminergic input to the striatum. This results in a reduced activation of the direct pathway and in a disinhibition of the indirect pathway, which is associated with the elevation of adenosine A2A receptor transmission. Such unbalanced activity of the striatal output pathway is at the basis of the motor impairment observed in PD

external resources
NCBI:83098
KEGG:hsa05012
PUBMED:15767499
PUBMED:12461550
PUBMED:21811441
PUBMED:17911161
PUBMED:15525720
PUBMED:16022590
PUBMED:12971891
PUBMED:15681812
PUBMED:16495942
PUBMED:11331916
PUBMED:18426756
PUBMED:16278972
PUBMED:18680555
PUBMED:12938733
PUBMED:15770999
PUBMED:12728264
PUBMED:15054086
PUBMED:20236221
PUBMED:22927178

genes
ADCY5 , ADORA2A , SLC25A4 , SLC25A5 , SLC25A6 , APAF1 , ATP5F1A , ATP5F1B , ATP5F1C , ATP5F1D , ATP5F1E , ATP5PB , ATP5MC1 , ATP5MC2 , ATP5MC3 , ATP5PF , ATP5PO , CASP3 , CASP9 , COX4I1 , COX5B , COX6A1 , COX6A2 , COX6B1 , COX6C , COX7A1 , COX7A2 , COX7B , COX7C , COX8A , CYC1 , DRD1 , DRD2 , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GNAL , GPR37 , MT-ATP6 , MT-ATP8 , MT-CO1 , MT-CO2 , MT-CO3 , MT-CYB , MT-ND1 , MT-ND2 , MT-ND3 , MT-ND4 , MT-ND4L , MT-ND5 , MT-ND6 , NDUFA1 , NDUFA2 , NDUFA3 , NDUFA4 , NDUFA5 , NDUFA6 , NDUFA7 , NDUFA8 , NDUFA9 , NDUFA10 , NDUFAB1 , NDUFB1 , NDUFB2 , NDUFB3 , NDUFB4 , NDUFB5 , NDUFB6 , NDUFB7 , NDUFB8 , NDUFB9 , NDUFB10 , NDUFC1 , NDUFC2 , NDUFS1 , NDUFS2 , NDUFS3 , NDUFV1 , NDUFS4 , NDUFS5 , NDUFS6 , NDUFS8 , NDUFV2 , NDUFV3 , PRKN , SEPT5 , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , SDHA , SDHB , SDHC , SDHD , SLC6A3 , SLC18A1 , SLC18A2 , SNCA , TH , UBB , UBA1 , UBA7 , UBE2G1 , UBE2G2 , UBE2L3 , UCHL1 , UQCRB , UQCRC1 , UQCRC2 , UQCRFS1 , UQCRH , VDAC1 , VDAC2 , VDAC3 , COX7A2L , UBE2L6 , COX5A , SNCAIP , PPIF , ATP5PD , UQCR11 , PARK7 , UQCRQ , HTRA2 , UQCR10 , NDUFA13 , UBE2J1 , CYCS , NDUFB11 , NDUFA12 , NDUFA4L2 , PINK1 , SLC25A31 , COX4I2 , UBE2J2 , LRRK2 , COX6B2 , NDUFA11 , COX7B2 , COX8C , NDUFS7 , UQCRHL , NDUFC2-KCTD14 ,