description
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is an important secondary messenger synthesized by guanylate cyclases. cGMP has effects on phosphodiesterases (PDE), ion-gated channels, and the cGMP-dependent protein kinases (cGK, Protein Kinase G or PKG). It is involved in regulation of several physiological functions including vasodilation, platelet aggregation and neurotransmission. Elevation of intracellular cGMP activates PKG (Haslam et al. 1999) which regulates several intracellular molecules and pathways including the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) (Halbrugge et al. 1990) and the ERK pathway (Hood and Granger 1998, Li et al. 2001). cGMP mediates nitric oxide (NO)-induced vascular smooth muscle relaxation (Furchgott and Vanhoutte 1989). Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) hydrolyzes cGMP; the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (Viagra) increases intracellular cGMP and thereby can be used as a treatment for erectile dysfunction (Corbin and Francis 1999). The role of the cGMP and PKG in platelet activation was controversial as increases in platelet cGMP levels were observed in response to both platelet agonists (thrombin, ADP or collagen) and inhibitors (NO donors such as sodium nitroprusside), but it is currently accepted that PKG inhibits platelet activation (Haslam et al. 1999). Consistent with this, nitric oxide (NO) donors that inhibit platelet activation enhance intracellular cGMP (Haslam et al. 1999). cGMP also plays an important stimulatory role in GPIb-IX-mediated platelet activation. Platelet responses to cGMP have been proposed to be biphasic, consisting of an early stimulatory response that promotes platelet activation followed by a delayed platelet inhibition that serves to limit the size of platelet aggregates (Li et al 2003)

external resources
NCBI:1269344
REACTOME:R-HSA-418457
PUBMED:7913615
PUBMED:14597579

genes
ITPR1 , KCNMA1 , KCNMB1 , PDE1A , PDE2A , PDE3A , PDE3B , PDE9A , PDE1B , PRKG1 , PRKG2 , PDE5A , KCNMB2 , MRVI1 , PDE10A , KCNMB3 , KCNMB4 , PDE11A ,