description
The extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote differentiation, proliferation, cell motility, cell survivial, metabolism and transcription, among others (reviewed in Roskoski, 2012b; McKay and Morrison, 2007; Raman et al, 2007). In the classical pathway, MAPK1/3 activation is triggered by the GEF-mediated activation of RAS at the plasma membrane, leading to the activation of the RAF MAP3Ks (reviewed in McKay and Morrison, 2007; Matallanas et al, 2011; Wellbrock et al, 2004). However, many physiological and pathological stimuli have been found to activate MAPK1/3 independently of RAF and RAS, acting instead through MAP3Ks such as MOS, TPL2 and AMPK (Dawson et al, 2008; Wang et al, 2009; Kuriakose et al, 2014). Activated MAPK1/3 phosphorylate numerous targets in both the nucleus and cytoplasm (reviewed in Yoon and Seger, 2006; Roskoski 2012b)

external resources
NCBI:1269502
REACTOME:R-HSA-5684996
PUBMED:25378393
PUBMED:18199641
PUBMED:17496909
PUBMED:21779496
PUBMED:15520807
PUBMED:16393692
PUBMED:19520853
PUBMED:17496910
PUBMED:22569528

genes
ACTN2 , ANGPT1 , ARAF , ARRB1 , ARRB2 , BRAF , BTC , CALM1 , CALM2 , CALM3 , CAMK2A , CAMK2B , CAMK2D , CAMK2G , CDK1 , CSF2 , CSF2RA , CSF2RB , CSK , DLG4 , HBEGF , DUSP1 , DUSP2 , DUSP4 , DUSP5 , DUSP6 , DUSP7 , DUSP8 , DUSP9 , EGF , EGFR , ERBB2 , ERBB3 , ERBB4 , EREG , FGA , FGB , FGF1 , FGF2 , FGF3 , FGF4 , FGF5 , FGF6 , FGF7 , FGF8 , FGF9 , FGF10 , FGFR1 , FGFR3 , FGFR2 , FGFR4 , FGG , FN1 , FYN , GDNF , GFRA1 , GFRA2 , GFRA3 , GRB2 , GRIN1 , GRIN2A , GRIN2B , GRIN2C , GRIN2D , HGF , NRG1 , HRAS , IL2 , IL2RA , IL2RB , IL2RG , IL3 , IL3RA , IL5 , IL5RA , IL6 , IL6R , IL6ST , IRS1 , ITGA2B , ITGB3 , JAK1 , JAK2 , JAK3 , KIT , KRAS , MARK3 , MET , KITLG , MAP3K11 , NCAM1 , NEFL , NF1 , NRAS , NRTN , PEBP1 , PDGFA , PDGFB , PDGFRA , PDGFRB , PHB , PPP2CA , PPP2CB , PPP2R1A , PPP2R1B , PPP2R5A , PPP2R5B , PPP2R5C , PPP2R5D , PPP2R5E , PPP5C , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , PSPN , PSMA1 , PSMA2 , PSMA3 , PSMA4 , PSMA5 , PSMA6 , PSMA7 , PSMB1 , PSMB2 , PSMB3 , PSMB4 , PSMB5 , PSMB6 , PSMB7 , PSMB8 , PSMB9 , PSMB10 , PSMC1 , PSMC2 , PSMC3 , PSMC4 , PSMC5 , PSMC6 , PSMD1 , PSMD2 , PSMD3 , PSMD4 , PSMD5 , PSMD7 , PSMD8 , PSMD9 , PSMD10 , PSMD11 , PSMD12 , PSMD13 , PSME1 , PSME2 , PTK2 , PTPN11 , PTPRA , RAF1 , RAP1A , RAP1B , RASA1 , RASA2 , RASGRF1 , RASGRF2 , RET , RPS27A , SHC1 , SOS1 , SPTA1 , SPTAN1 , SPTB , SPTBN1 , SPTBN2 , SRC , TEK , TLN1 , TYK2 , UBA52 , UBB , UBC , VCL , VWF , YWHAB , SEM1 , FGF23 , BRAP , RASAL1 , CUL3 , LAMTOR3 , IRS2 , PEA15 , FGF18 , FGF17 , FGF16 , IQGAP1 , SYNGAP1 , KSR1 , ARTN , KL , RASAL2 , PSMF1 , NRG2 , RAPGEF2 , PSMD6 , FGF19 , RBX1 , RANBP9 , RASGRP1 , AKAP9 , RASA4 , PSME3 , PSMD14 , CNKSR1 , NRG3 , FRS3 , FRS2 , DUSP10 , RASA3 , CNKSR2 , PSME4 , SHC2 , RASGRP3 , FGF20 , FGF22 , LAT , LAMTOR2 , SPTBN5 , SHC3 , APBB1IP , IL17RD , SPTBN4 , GFRA4 , RASAL3 , DUSP16 , KBTBD7 , WDR83 , RASGRP4 , PSMB11 , PSMA8 , NRG4 , PAQR3 , KLB , DAB2IP , SPRED1 , SPRED2 , RASGEF1A , KSR2 , SPRED3 , C7orf76 , LOC100506136 , MIR5004 ,