description
Contraction of the heart is a complex process initiated by the electrical excitation of cardiac myocytes (excitation-contraction coupling, ECC). In cardiac myocytes, Ca2+ influx induced by activation of voltage-dependent L-type Ca channels (DHP receptors) upon membrane depolarization triggers the release of Ca2+ via Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors) of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through a Ca2+ -induced Ca release (CICR) mechanism. Ca2+ ions released via the CICR mechanism diffuse through the cytosolic space to contractile proteins to bind to troponinC resulting in the release of inhibition induced by troponinI. The Ca2+ binding to troponinC thereby triggers the sliding of thin and thick filaments, that is, the activation of a crossbridge and subsequent cardiac force development and/or cell shortening. Recovery occurs as Ca2+ is pumped out of the cell by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) or is returned to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by sarco(endo)plasmic Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) pumps on the non-junctional region of the SR

external resources
NCBI:93344
KEGG:hsa04260
PUBMED:16799263
PUBMED:18981594
PUBMED:12763850
PUBMED:16096350
PUBMED:16552170
PUBMED:15736582
PUBMED:14659803
PUBMED:17988210
PUBMED:11805843
PUBMED:10747208
PUBMED:16701909
PUBMED:11294886

genes
ACTC1 , ATP1A1 , ATP1A2 , ATP1A3 , ATP1A4 , ATP1B1 , ATP1B2 , ATP1B3 , FXYD2 , ATP2A2 , CACNA1C , CACNA1D , CACNA1F , CACNA1S , CACNA2D1 , CACNB1 , CACNB2 , CACNB3 , CACNB4 , CACNG1 , COX4I1 , COX5B , COX6A1 , COX6A2 , COX6B1 , COX6C , COX7A1 , COX7A2 , COX7B , COX7C , COX8A , CYC1 , MT-CO1 , MT-CO2 , MT-CO3 , MT-CYB , MYH6 , MYH7 , MYL2 , MYL3 , MYL4 , RYR2 , SLC8A1 , SLC9A1 , TNNC1 , TNNI3 , TNNT2 , TPM1 , TPM2 , TPM3 , TPM4 , UQCRB , UQCRC1 , UQCRC2 , UQCRFS1 , UQCRH , COX7A2L , CACNA2D2 , COX5A , CACNG3 , CACNG2 , SLC9A6 , UQCR11 , ATP1B4 , UQCRQ , CACNG5 , CACNG4 , UQCR10 , CACNA2D3 , CACNG8 , CACNG7 , CACNG6 , COX4I2 , CACNA2D4 , COX6B2 , COX7B2 , COX8C , UQCRHL ,