description
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it has become clear that this greatly oversimplifies the complexities of GPCR signaling (see Gurevich & Gurevich, 2008). The beta:gamma G-protein dimer is also involved in downstream signaling (Smrcka, 2008), and some receptors form part of metastable complexes of receptor and accessory proteins such as the arrestins. GPCRs are involved in many diverse signaling events (Kristiansen 2004), using a variety of pathways that include modulation of adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C, the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK

external resources
NCBI:1269574
REACTOME:R-HSA-388396
PUBMED:12040175

genes
ABR , ADCY1 , ADCY2 , ADCY3 , ADCY5 , ADCY6 , ADCY7 , ADCY8 , ADCY9 , ADCYAP1 , ADCYAP1R1 , ADM , ADORA1 , ADORA2A , ADORA2B , ADORA3 , ADRA1D , ADRA1B , ADRA1A , ADRA2A , ADRA2B , ADRA2C , ADRB1 , ADRB2 , ADRB3 , GRK2 , GRK3 , AGT , AGTR1 , AGTR2 , APLNR , AKT1 , AKT2 , ANXA1 , APP , RHOA , RHOB , RHOC , RHOG , ARRB1 , ARRB2 , AVP , AVPR1A , AVPR1B , AVPR2 , OPN1SW , BDKRB1 , BDKRB2 , CXCR5 , BRS3 , C3 , C3AR1 , C5 , C5AR1 , DAGLA , CALCA , CALCB , CALCR , CASR , CCK , CCKAR , CCKBR , CDC42 , CGA , CHRM1 , CHRM2 , CHRM3 , CHRM4 , CHRM5 , CCR1 , CCR3 , CCR4 , CCR5 , CCR6 , CCR7 , CCR8 , LTB4R , CNR1 , CNR2 , CORT , CRH , CRHR1 , CRHR2 , CSF2 , CSF2RA , CSF2RB , DGKA , DGKB , DGKG , DGKQ , DRD1 , DRD2 , DRD3 , DRD4 , DRD5 , ECT2 , S1PR1 , LPAR1 , S1PR3 , EDN1 , EDN2 , EDN3 , EDNRA , EDNRB , F2 , F2R , F2RL1 , F2RL2 , FGD1 , FPR1 , FPR2 , FPR3 , FSHB , FSHR , GAST , GABBR1 , GALR1 , GCG , GCGR , OPN1MW , GHRH , GHRHR , GHSR , GIP , GIPR , GLP1R , GNA11 , GNA12 , GNA15 , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GNAL , GNAQ , GNAS , GNAT1 , GNAT2 , GNAZ , GNB1 , GNB2 , GNB3 , GNG3 , GNG4 , GNG5 , GNG7 , GNG10 , GNG11 , GNGT1 , GNGT2 , GNRH1 , GNRH2 , GNRHR , CCR10 , GPR4 , XCR1 , NPBWR1 , NPBWR2 , CXCR3 , UTS2R , GPR15 , GPR17 , GPR18 , GPR20 , LPAR4 , MCHR1 , GPR25 , GPR27 , GPER1 , GPR32 , MLNR , FFAR1 , FFAR3 , FFAR2 , GRK5 , GRK6 , GRB2 , GRM1 , GRM2 , GRM3 , GRM4 , GRM5 , GRM6 , GRM7 , GRM8 , CXCL1 , CXCL2 , CXCL3 , GRP , GRPR , HCRT , HCRTR1 , HCRTR2 , HRH1 , HRH2 , HTR1A , HTR1B , HTR1D , HTR1E , HTR1F , HTR2A , HTR2B , HTR2C , HTR4 , HTR5A , HTR6 , HTR7 , IAPP , IL2 , IL2RA , IL2RB , IL2RG , IL3 , IL3RA , IL5 , IL5RA , CXCL8 , CXCR1 , CXCR2 , CXCL10 , INSL3 , ITPR1 , ITPR2 , ITPR3 , JAK1 , JAK2 , JAK3 , KISS1 , KNG1 , LHB , LHCGR , MC1R , MC2R , MC3R , MC4R , MC5R , MCF2 , CXCL9 , MLN , MTNR1A , MTNR1B , NMB , NMBR , NPY , NPY1R , NPY2R , NPY5R , NTS , NTSR1 , OPRD1 , OPRK1 , OPRL1 , OPRM1 , OR1D2 , OR1F1 , OR2C1 , OR3A1 , OR3A2 , OXT , OXTR , P2RY1 , P2RY2 , P2RY4 , P2RY6 , P2RY11 , PDE1A , PDE2A , PDE3A , PDE3B , PDE4A , PDE4B , PDE4C , PDE4D , PDE7A , PDE8A , PDE1B , PDPK1 , PDYN , PENK , PF4 , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3CG , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PLXNB1 , PMCH , PNOC , POMC , PPBP , PPY , NPY4R , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCD , PRKCE , PRKCG , PRKCH , PRKCQ , PYY , PTAFR , TAS2R38 , PTGDR , PTGER1 , PTGER2 , PTGER3 , PTGER4 , PTGFR , PTGIR , PTH , PTHLH , PTH1R , PTH2R , RAC1 , RAC2 , RASGRF2 , OPN1LW , RGR , RGS1 , RGS2 , RGS3 , RGS4 , RGS7 , RGS10 , RGS12 , RGS13 , RGS16 , RHO , RLN2 , ROCK1 , SAA1 , SCT , SCTR , CCL5 , CCL16 , CCL19 , CCL20 , CCL21 , CCL23 , CCL25 , CXCL6 , CXCL11 , CXCL5 , XCL1 , CXCL12 , ITSN1 , SHC1 , SOS1 , SOS2 , SST , SSTR1 , SSTR2 , SSTR3 , SSTR4 , SSTR5 , XCL2 , TAC1 , TACR2 , TAC3 , TACR1 , TACR3 , TBXA2R , TIAM1 , TRH , TRHR , TRIO , TRPC3 , TRPC6 , TSHB , TSHR , VAV1 , VAV2 , VIP , VIPR1 , VIPR2 , CXCR4 , REEP5 , OR2H2 , ARHGEF5 , GPR68 , OR1A1 , OR1D5 , OR1E1 , OR1E2 , OR1E3 , OR1G1 , OR1P1 , OR3A3 , GPR65 , GALR3 , RGS5 , PIK3R3 , DGKZ , DGKE , DGKD , OR6A2 , RGS20 , NPFF , PDE8B , S1PR4 , RGS11 , RGS9 , GALR2 , HCAR3 , APLN , ARHGEF7 , KALRN , F2RL3 , TAAR5 , ARHGEF1 , DGKI , LPAR2 , ARHGEF2 , TAAR2 , TAAR3P , GPR55 , S1PR2 , GLP2R , ARHGEF6 , ROCK2 , GABBR2 , RGS6 , GNA14 , ARHGEF10 , ARHGEF11 , ARHGEF17 , GAB2 , P2RY14 , AKT3 , INSL5 , RASGRP1 , LPAR6 , CALCRL , RASGRP2 , RAMP2 , RAMP1 , RAMP3 , NET1 , RGS19 , NMUR1 , VAV3 , CXCL13 , RGS14 , CXCR6 , GNA13 , GNB5 , RRH , OR5I1 , CYSLTR1 , CCR9 , PDE10A , CCL27 , NMU , NPFFR2 , PROKR1 , GPR83 , UTS2 , AKAP13 , GPR176 , GPR45 , PTGDR2 , HRH3 , MGLL , ARHGEF15 , ARHGEF9 , PLCB1 , MCF2L , ARHGEF12 , ARHGEF18 , PIK3R5 , OR52A1 , LPAR3 , OPN3 , NTSR2 , NGEF , ARHGEF26 , GPSM1 , ABHD12 , RGS22 , OR1F2P , OR1C1 , OR1A2 , OR2F1 , OR2B6 , OR1J4 , TIAM2 , OR2M4 , OR2L2 , OR2K2 , OR7A17 , OR5L2 , OR5K1 , OR5H1 , OR10J1 , OR8G2P , OR8B8 , OR8G1 , OR9A1P , OR10A3 , OR10D3 , OR12D2 , OR11A1 , OR10H3 , OR10G3 , OR10G2 , OR10H2 , OR10H1 , RGS17 , OR8B2 , OR7E24 , OR7C2 , OR7A5 , OR7C1 , OR4F4 , OR4F3 , OR4E2 , OR4E1 , OR4D1 , OR2W1 , OR2V1 , OR2T1 , OR2J2 , OR2H1 , OR1L3 , OR1L1 , OR1J2 , PDE7B , HCAR1 , OXGR1 , ARHGEF16 , P2RY10 , GPR132 , ARHGEF4 , ARHGEF3 , TAS2R3 , TAS2R4 , TAS2R16 , TAS2R1 , TAS2R9 , TAS2R8 , TAS2R7 , TAS2R13 , TAS2R10 , TAS2R14 , HEBP1 , PDE11A , GAL , RXFP3 , REEP2 , GHRL , GNG13 , S1PR5 , P2RY13 , GPR84 , GNG2 , TAS2R5 , ARHGEF38 , ARHGEF10L , ARHGEF40 , GNG12 , LTB4R2 , CCL28 , OR2S2 , SUCNR1 , NMUR2 , ACKR3 , CYSLTR2 , TRPC7 , LPAR5 , ABHD6 , PLEKHG5 , PREX1 , CXCL16 , HRH4 , GNB4 , RXFP1 , PROK2 , NPFFR1 , RTP4 , RGS18 , P2RY12 , PLEKHG2 , REEP1 , OR2B8P , OR52L2P , OR13A1 , OR5H6 , OR52E1 , OR5H2 , OR4K5 , OR51G1 , OR11H2 , OR51B4 , OR51B2 , OR4C5 , OR51J1 , OR52N1 , OR5AL1 , OR10G6 , OR4F5 , OR2A4 , OR4K1 , OR6J1 , ADM2 , REEP4 , OR5AC2 , OR11H1 , OR4F17 , OR4K15 , OR8J3 , OR8J2 , OR5G3 , OR5AK3P , OR52P1P , OR51G2 , OR51E2 , OR4P4 , OR4C15 , OR4A8 , OR4A5 , OR4A16 , OR4A15 , OR10W1 , OR2AE1 , OR4F16 , OR2W6P , OR5AC1 , OR6N2 , OR6K2 , OR2T7 , OR2L5 , OR2G3 , OR2G2 , OR2C3 , OR5V1 , OR2B2 , OR12D3 , TAAR8 , RTP3 , OBSCN , QRFPR , PROK1 , MCHR2 , KISS1R , ARHGEF39 , RGS8 , FGD3 , REEP6 , OPN4 , GNG8 , PTH2 , GNRHR2 , ARHGEF25 , RLN3 , OR52E2 , OR52J3 , OR51L1 , OR51A7 , OR51S1 , OR51F2 , OR52R1 , OR4C46 , OR4X2 , OR4B1 , OR52M1 , OR52K2 , OR5P2 , OR5P3 , OR8I2 , OR2D3 , OR2D2 , OR52W1 , OR56A4 , OR56A1 , OR2AP1 , OR10P1 , OR10AD1 , OR10A7 , FGD4 , RXFP2 , OR4K14 , OR4L1 , OR11H6 , GPHB5 , OR4D2 , OR7D4 , OR7G1 , OR1M1 , OR1I1 , OR10H4 , OR2M5 , OR2M3 , OR2T12 , OR14C36 , OR2T34 , OR2T10 , OR2T4 , OR2T11 , OR10J5 , OR2AJ1 , OR14L1P , OR2B11 , ARHGEF19 , OR10T2 , OR6P1 , OR10X1 , OR10Z1 , OR6K6 , OR6N1 , PROKR2 , NMS , OR9A4 , RTP1 , OR2Y1 , TAAR9 , TAAR1 , OR9A2 , OR2A14 , OR6B1 , OR2F2 , OR13C5 , OR13C8 , OR13C3 , OR13C4 , OR13F1 , OR1L8 , OR1N2 , OR1N1 , DGKK , OR52I2 , OR51E1 , OR10A5 , OR2AG1 , PIK3R6 , OR6B3 , GPBAR1 , OR1Q1 , DGKH , OR7D2 , OXER1 , GPHA2 , OR56B4 , ADCY4 , OR8U1 , OR4C16 , OR4C11 , OR4S2 , OR4C6 , OR5D14 , OR5L1 , OR5D18 , OR5AS1 , OR8K5 , OR5T2 , OR8H1 , OR8K3 , OR8J1 , OR5R1 , OR5M3 , OR5M8 , OR5M11 , OR5AR1 , OR8B12 , OR8G5 , OR10G8 , OR10G9 , OR10S1 , OR6T1 , OR4D5 , OR6Q1 , OR9I1 , OR9Q1 , OR9Q2 , OR1S2 , OR1S1 , OR10Q1 , OR5B17 , OR5B21 , OR5A2 , OR5A1 , OR4D6 , OR4D11 , REEP3 , OPN5 , FGD2 , DAGLB , GPRC6A , OR6C74 , OR6C3 , OR2T6 , OR1L4 , OR52B2 , OR4C3 , OR4S1 , OR51F1 , NPB , UTS2B , TAS2R39 , TAS2R40 , TAS2R41 , TAS2R43 , TAS2R31 , TAS2R46 , TAS2R30 , TAS2R19 , TAS2R20 , TAS2R50 , OR51B5 , OR10AG1 , OR5J2 , OR4C13 , OR4C12 , OR52Z1 , OR51V1 , OR8D1 , OR8D2 , OR8B4 , OR9G4 , OR10A4 , OR6C6 , OR4K3 , OR4N4 , NPW , OR2Z1 , OR10H5 , OR2L13 , OR14A16 , RTP5 , GPR150 , OR2V2 , OR13C9 , OR13D1 , TAAR6 , TAS2R60 , HCAR2 , OR8D4 , OR5F1 , OR5AP2 , OR52L1 , OR2AG2 , RXFP4 , OR52B6 , OR2AT4 , OR10A2 , OR6C2 , OR6C4 , OR8S1 , OR6S1 , OR6F1 , OR2W3 , OR2T8 , OR2T3 , OR10R2 , OR2T29 , RTP2 , OR6V1 , OR2A12 , OR2A1 , GNAT3 , QRFP , OR1J1 , OR1B1 , OR13H1 , TAS2R42 , RGSL1 , NPSR1 , OR56B1 , OR14A2 , OR6B2 , ARHGEF37 , OR52K1 , OR52I1 , OR51D1 , OR52A4P , OR52A5 , OR51B6 , OR51M1 , OR51Q1 , OR51I1 , OR51I2 , OR52D1 , OR52H1 , OR52N4 , OR56B2P , OR52N5 , OR52N2 , OR52E6 , OR52E8 , OR52E4 , OR52E5 , OR56A3 , OR56A5 , OR10A6 , OR4X1 , OR4A4P , OR5D13 , OR5D16 , OR5W2 , OR8H2 , OR8H3 , OR5T3 , OR5T1 , OR8K1 , OR5M9 , OR5M10 , OR5M1 , OR9G1 , OR5AK2 , OR5B2 , OR5B12 , OR5AN1 , OR4D10 , OR4D9 , OR10V1 , OR6X1 , OR6M1 , OR10G4 , OR10G7 , OR10D4P , OR8B3 , OR8A1 , OR6C1 , OR6C75 , OR6C76 , OR6C70 , OR4N2 , OR4K2 , OR4Q2 , OR4K13 , OR4K17 , OR4N5 , OR11G2 , OR11H7 , OR11H4 , OR5AU1 , OR4M2 , OR4F6 , OR4F15 , OR7G2 , OR7G3 , OR7A10 , OR7A2P , OR10K2 , OR10K1 , OR6Y1 , OR6K3 , OR10J4 , OR11L1 , OR2L8 , OR2AK2 , OR2L3 , OR2M2 , OR2T33 , OR2M7 , OR2G6 , OR10AC1 , OR2A25 , OR13J1 , OR13C2 , OR1L6 , OR5C1 , OR1K1 , OR2A5 , OR2A7 , OR51H1 , OR51T1 , OR51A4 , OR51A2 , OR10J6P , OR2T2 , OR2T5 , OR14I1 , OR5K2 , OR2A42 , OR2T27 , OR2T35 , OR4A47 , OR5H14 , OR5H15 , OR5K3 , OR5K4 , OR6C65 , OR6C68 , MIR197 , RGS21 , OR4F21 , OR5B3 , OR9K2 , OR4Q3 , OR4M1 , OR10J3 , OR2W5 , OR13G1 , OR1F12 , OR2B3 , OR2J1 , OR2J3 , OR14J1 , OR10C1 , OR2I1P , OR2A2 , ARHGEF35 , NPS , OR1D4 , CCR2 , OR4F29 , LOC729966 , ARHGEF33 ,