description
Calcium, as the ion Ca2+, is essential in many biological processes. The majority of Ca2+ in many organisms is bound to phosphates which form skeletal structures and also buffer Ca2+ levels in extracellular fluids (typically 1 millimolar). Intracellular free Ca2+, by contrast, is 10,000 times lower than the outside of the cell (typically 10 micromolar). This concentration gradient is used to import Ca2+ into cells where it acts as a second messenger

external resources
NCBI:1269588
REACTOME:R-HSA-111996
PUBMED:18083096
PUBMED:11162741
PUBMED:17697045
PUBMED:16076488

genes
ADCY1 , ADCY2 , ADCY3 , ADCY5 , ADCY6 , ADCY7 , ADCY8 , ADCY9 , GRK2 , CALM1 , CALM2 , CALM3 , CAMK4 , CREB1 , PDE1A , PDE1C , PDE1B , PLA2G4A , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKAR1A , PRKAR1B , PRKAR2A , PRKAR2B , PRKCA , PRKCD , PRKCG , MAPK1 , ADCY4 ,