description
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and under certain pathologic condition such as huperglycemia. Some of the best chemically characterized AGEs include N-epsilon-carboxy-methyl-lysine (CML), N-epsilon-carboxy-ethyl-lysine (CEL), and Imidazolone. The major receptor for AGEs, known as receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE or AGER), belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and has been described as a pattern recognition receptor. AGE/RAGE signaling elicits activation of multiple intracellular signal pathways involving NADPH oxidase, protein kinase C, and MAPKs, then resulting in NF-kappaB activity. NF-kappa B promotes the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha and a variety of atherosclerosis-related genes, including VCAM-1, tissue factor, VEGF, and RAGE. In addition, JAK-STAT-mediated and PI3K-Akt-dependent pathways are induced via RAGE, which in turn participate in cell proliferation and apoptosis respectively. Hypoxia-mediated induction of Egr-1 was also shown to require the AGE-RAGE interaction. The results of these signal transductions have been reported to be the possible mechanism that initates diabetic complications

external resources
NCBI:1319988
KEGG:hsa04933
PUBMED:23776698
PUBMED:15569303
PUBMED:16894049
PUBMED:18323529
PUBMED:11375353
PUBMED:21111800
PUBMED:19404313
PUBMED:20470857
PUBMED:17005604
PUBMED:23961320
PUBMED:21261520
PUBMED:11180401
PUBMED:18922799
PUBMED:21680901
PUBMED:11684565
PUBMED:21590515
PUBMED:12709399
PUBMED:20300563
PUBMED:21440603
PUBMED:22558488

genes
AGER , AGTR1 , AKT1 , AKT2 , BAX , CCND1 , BCL2 , CASP3 , CDC42 , CDK4 , CDKN1B , COL1A1 , COL1A2 , COL3A1 , COL4A1 , COL4A2 , COL4A3 , COL4A4 , COL4A5 , COL4A6 , MAPK14 , CYBB , DIAPH1 , EDN1 , EGR1 , F3 , VEGFD , FOXO1 , FN1 , HRAS , ICAM1 , IL1A , IL1B , IL6 , CXCL8 , JAK2 , JUN , KRAS , SMAD2 , SMAD3 , SMAD4 , MMP2 , NFATC1 , NFKB1 , NOS3 , NRAS , SERPINE1 , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIM1 , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PLCD1 , PLCG1 , PLCG2 , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCD , PRKCE , PRKCZ , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK8 , MAPK11 , MAPK9 , MAPK10 , MAPK13 , RAC1 , RELA , MAPK12 , CCL2 , SELE , STAT1 , STAT3 , STAT5A , STAT5B , TGFB1 , TGFB2 , TGFB3 , TGFBR1 , TGFBR2 , THBD , TNF , VCAM1 , VEGFA , VEGFB , VEGFC , PIK3R3 , AKT3 , PLCB1 , NOX1 , NOX3 , PLCE1 , PLCD4 , PLCD3 ,