description
Phase 4 describes the membrane potential when a cell is not being stimulated. The normal resting potential in the ventricular myocardium is between -85 to -95 mV. The membrane is most permeable to K+ and relatively impermeable to other ions therefore the K+ gradient across the cell membrane is the key determinant in the normal resting potential (Park & Fishman 2011, Grant 2009). In this phase, K+ currents are generated by inward rectifier potassium channels (KCNJs) and tandem pore domain K+ channels (KCNKs). Some Na+/K+-ATPases and Na+/Ca2+-exchangers can also play roles during this phase

external resources
NCBI:1339116
REACTOME:R-HSA-5576886
PUBMED:19808464
PUBMED:21357845

genes
KCNJ2 , KCNJ4 , KCNJ12 , KCNJ14 , KCNK1 , KCNK2 , KCNK3 , KCNK5 , KCNK6 , KCNK7 , KCNK4 , KCNK9 , KCNK10 , KCNK13 , KCNK12 , KCNK15 , KCNK16 , KCNK17 , KCNK18 ,