description
EGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which activate down- stream pathways, are associated with cancers, especially lung cancer. Several tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapies against EGFR are currently administered and are initially effective in cancer patients who have EGFR mutations or aberrant activation of EGFR. However, the development of TKI resistance is common and results in the recurrence of tumors. Studies over the last decade have identified mechanisms that drive resistance to EGFR TKI treatment. Most outstanding mechanisms are: the secondary EGFR mutation (T790M), activation of alternative pathways (c-Met, HGF, AXL), aberrance of the downstream pathways (K-RAS mutations, loss of PTEN), impairment of the EGFR-TKIs-mediated apoptosis pathway (BCL2-like 11/BIM deletion polymorphism), histologic transformation, etc

external resources
NCBI:1404798
KEGG:hsa01521
PUBMED:16843264
PUBMED:23401451
PUBMED:20966921
PUBMED:24307395
PUBMED:22956644
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PUBMED:19632948
PUBMED:23361103
PUBMED:26579470
PUBMED:22970367
PUBMED:23358468
PUBMED:17554333
PUBMED:25337673
PUBMED:22474259
PUBMED:20551942

genes
AKT1 , AKT2 , ARAF , AXL , BAD , BAX , BCL2 , BCL2L1 , BRAF , EGF , EGFR , EIF4E , EIF4EBP1 , ERBB2 , ERBB3 , FGF2 , FGFR3 , FGFR2 , FOXO3 , MTOR , GAB1 , GAS6 , GRB2 , GSK3B , HGF , NRG1 , HRAS , IGF1 , IGF1R , IL6 , IL6R , JAK1 , JAK2 , KDR , KRAS , MET , NF1 , NRAS , PDGFA , PDGFB , PDGFRA , PDGFRB , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLCG1 , PLCG2 , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCG , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , PTEN , RAF1 , RPS6 , RPS6KB1 , RPS6KB2 , SHC1 , SOS1 , SOS2 , SRC , STAT3 , TGFA , VEGFA , PIK3R3 , EIF4E2 , NRG2 , AKT3 , BCL2L11 , SHC2 , SHC3 , PDGFC , PDGFD , EIF4E1B , SHC4 ,