description
The importance of the RAS/RAF/MAPK cascade in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival is highlighted by the fact that components of the pathway are mutated with high frequency in a large number of human cancers. Activating mutations in RAS are found in approximately one third of human cancers, while ~8% of tumors express an activated form of BRAF. RAS pathway activation is also achieved in a smaller subset of cancers by loss-of-function mutations in negative regulators of RAS signaling, such as the RAS GAP NF1(reviewed in Prior et al, 2012; Pylayeva-Gupta et al, 2011; Stephen et al, 2014; Lavoie and Therrien, 2015; Lito et al, 2013; Samatar and Poulikakos, 2014; Maertens and Cichowski, 2014)

external resources
NCBI:1457781
REACTOME:R-HSA-6802957
PUBMED:25907612
PUBMED:24651010
PUBMED:24202393
PUBMED:25435214
PUBMED:21993244
PUBMED:24814062
PUBMED:22589270

genes
ARAF , ARRB1 , ARRB2 , BRAF , CLCN6 , CSK , FGA , FGB , FGG , FN1 , HRAS , ITGA2B , ITGB3 , JAK2 , KRAS , LMNA , MARK3 , MAP3K11 , NF1 , NRAS , PEBP1 , PHB , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , RAF1 , RAP1A , RAP1B , RASA1 , RASA2 , SRC , TLN1 , VCL , VWF , YWHAB , FXR1 , BRAP , RASAL1 , AP3B1 , TRIM24 , IQGAP1 , SYNGAP1 , KSR1 , PAPSS1 , QKI , RASAL2 , FAM131B , BCL2L11 , AKAP9 , RASA4 , CNKSR1 , ATG7 , FAM114A2 , TENT4A , RASA3 , CNKSR2 , TRAK1 , MPRIP , MACF1 , SND1 , APBB1IP , ESRP1 , AGGF1 , AGK , ZC3HAV1 , AGTRAP , KIAA1549 , RASAL3 , KDM7A , DAB2IP , KSR2 , KIAA0754 , MIR5004 ,