description
Shear stress represents the frictional force that the flow of blood exerts at the endothelial surface of the vessel wall and plays a central role in vascular biology and contributes to the progress of atherosclerosis. Sustained laminar flow with high shear stress upregulates expressions of endothelial cell (EC) genes and proteins that are protective against atherosclerosis. The key shear stress-induced transcription factors that govern the expression of these genes are Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2). On the other hand, disturbed flow with associated reciprocating, low shear stress generally upregulates the EC genes and proteins that promote oxidative and inflammatory states in the artery wall, resulting in atherogenesis. Important transcriptional events that reflect this condition of ECs in disturbed flow include the activation of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)

external resources
NCBI:1474302
KEGG:hsa05418
PUBMED:23429585
PUBMED:21050140
PUBMED:17599600
PUBMED:24190880
PUBMED:22003002
PUBMED:24876354
PUBMED:24947523
PUBMED:23899566
PUBMED:26597822
PUBMED:20353494
PUBMED:22076424
PUBMED:20538799
PUBMED:25165867
PUBMED:20032497
PUBMED:23084990
PUBMED:26822720
PUBMED:24573382
PUBMED:23555159
PUBMED:26212910
PUBMED:21457103
PUBMED:19151844
PUBMED:15388638
PUBMED:16765337
PUBMED:27027326
PUBMED:25638487
PUBMED:21733876

genes
ACTB , ACTG1 , ACVR1 , ACVR2A , ACVR2B , AKT1 , AKT2 , RHOA , ASS1 , BCL2 , BMP4 , BMPR1A , BMPR1B , BMPR2 , CALM1 , CALM2 , CALM3 , CALML3 , CAV1 , CAV2 , CAV3 , CDH5 , CHUK , MAPK14 , CTNNB1 , CTSL , CYBA , CYBB , NQO1 , DUSP1 , EDN1 , FOS , GPC1 , GSTA1 , GSTA2 , GSTA3 , GSTA4 , GSTM1 , GSTM2 , GSTM3 , GSTM4 , GSTM5 , GSTP1 , GSTT1 , GSTT2 , HMOX1 , HMOX2 , HSP90AA1 , HSP90AB1 , ICAM1 , IFNG , IKBKB , IL1A , IL1B , IL1R1 , ITGA2B , ITGAV , ITGB3 , JUN , KDR , MEF2A , MEF2C , MAP3K5 , MGST1 , MGST2 , MGST3 , MMP2 , MMP9 , NCF2 , NFE2L2 , NFKB1 , NOS3 , NPPC , PDGFA , PDGFB , PECAM1 , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLAT , PRKAA1 , PRKAA2 , PRKCZ , MAPK7 , MAPK8 , MAPK11 , MAPK9 , MAPK10 , MAPK13 , MAP2K5 , MAP2K6 , MAP2K7 , PTK2 , RAC1 , RAC2 , RAC3 , RELA , MAPK12 , CCL2 , SDC1 , SDC2 , SDC4 , SELE , MAP2K4 , SUMO3 , SUMO2 , SRC , MAP3K7 , THBD , TNF , TNFRSF1A , TP53 , HSP90B1 , TXN , SUMO1 , VCAM1 , VEGFA , IL1R2 , PIK3R3 , IKBKG , SQSTM1 , ARHGEF2 , GSTO1 , KEAP1 , AKT3 , KLF2 , TXN2 , NOX1 , NOX3 , PIAS4 , CALML5 , TRPV4 , CALML4 , GSTO2 , CALML6 , GSTA5 , SUMO4 , MIR10A , NCF1 , GSTT2B ,