description
Autophagy is a degradative pathway for the removal of cytoplasmic materials in eukaryotic cells, and is characterized by the formation of a double-membrane structure called the autophagosome, either in a housekeeping capacity or during stress and senescence. The process of autophagy could be divided into several stages: induction, vesicle nucleation, elongation and closure, and fusion and digestion. Most essential autophagic machineries are conserved throughout eukaryotes (see map04140 for animals and map04138 for fungi). This map is for other eukaryotes including plants and protists, where autophagy related genes (ATGs) play similar roles in the life cycle. However, autophagy has been relatively less studied in lower eukaryotes

external resources
NCBI:1510434
KEGG:hsa04136
PUBMED:22764279
PUBMED:20962583
PUBMED:26614870
PUBMED:22242963
PUBMED:24563201
PUBMED:26598298
PUBMED:21660427

genes
MTOR , IGBP1 , PIK3C3 , PPP2CA , PPP2CB , BECN1 , ATG12 , ATG5 , ULK2 , ATG13 , ATG7 , GABARAP , GABARAPL2 , ATG2A , ATG4B , GABARAPL1 , WIPI2 , PIK3R4 , ATG16L1 , WIPI1 , ATG2B , RPTOR , ATG101 , MLST8 , ATG3 , ATG9A , ATG10 , ATG4C , ATG4D , ATG4A , ATG9B , BECN2 ,