description
Leishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and proliferate intracellularly by deactivating the macrophage. Successful infection of Leishmania is achieved by alteration of signaling events in the host cell, leading to enhanced production of the autoinhibitory molecules like TGF-beta and decreased induction of cytokines such as IL12 for protective immunity. Nitric oxide production is also inhibited. In addition, defective expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes silences subsequent T cell activation mediated by macrophages, resulting in abnormal immune responses

external resources
NCBI:144181
KEGG:hsa05140
PUBMED:11890722
PUBMED:7916951
PUBMED:10417174
PUBMED:11298294
PUBMED:10586030
PUBMED:15322192
PUBMED:15831826
PUBMED:11728310
PUBMED:15039466
PUBMED:10462516
PUBMED:10608501
PUBMED:15721837
PUBMED:15639739
PUBMED:14762510
PUBMED:18793215
PUBMED:7591091
PUBMED:12438359
PUBMED:18070909
PUBMED:17543969
PUBMED:15983048
PUBMED:16848789
PUBMED:10770277
PUBMED:9504340

genes
C3 , CR1 , MAPK14 , CYBA , ELK1 , FCGR1A , FCGR2A , FCGR3A , FCGR3B , FOS , HLA-DMA , HLA-DMB , HLA-DOA , HLA-DOB , HLA-DPA1 , HLA-DPB1 , HLA-DQA1 , HLA-DQA2 , HLA-DQB1 , HLA-DRA , HLA-DRB1 , HLA-DRB5 , IFNG , IFNGR1 , IFNGR2 , IL1A , IL1B , IL4 , IL10 , IL12A , IL12B , IRAK1 , ITGA4 , ITGAM , ITGB1 , ITGB2 , JAK1 , JAK2 , JUN , MYD88 , NCF2 , NCF4 , NFKB1 , NFKBIA , NFKBIB , NOS2 , PRKCB , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK11 , MAPK13 , PTGS2 , PTPN6 , RELA , MAPK12 , STAT1 , MAP3K7 , TGFB1 , TGFB2 , TGFB3 , TLR2 , TLR4 , TNF , TRAF6 , FCGR2C , TAB1 , TAB2 , IRAK4 , MARCKSL1 , NCF1 ,