description
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechanisms. During early infection, nuclear translocation of NFkB is temporally blocked and p38 MAPK phosphorylation is prevented, suppressing IL-12 production. Another pathway for IL-12 induction occurs through CCR5 dependent pathway, but parasitic induction of an eicosanoid LXA4 contributes to the downregulation of IL-12. Direct activation of STAT3 by the parasite enhance anti-inflammatory function of IL-10 and TGF beta. T. gondii can cause lifelong chronic infection by establishing an anti-apoptotic environment through induction of bcl-2 or IAPs and by redirecting LDL-mediated cholesterol transport to scavenge nutrients from the host

external resources
NCBI:169642
KEGG:hsa05145
PUBMED:18617274
PUBMED:19400868
PUBMED:17024357
PUBMED:19744886
PUBMED:19891610
PUBMED:17110955
PUBMED:12106793
PUBMED:12580944
PUBMED:12857995
PUBMED:10234174
PUBMED:18327664
PUBMED:10525166
PUBMED:18059289
PUBMED:18775432
PUBMED:14642303
PUBMED:15361242
PUBMED:16339966
PUBMED:14987366
PUBMED:15639739

genes
AKT1 , AKT2 , ALOX5 , BIRC2 , BIRC3 , XIAP , BAD , BCL2 , BCL2L1 , CASP3 , CASP8 , CASP9 , CD40 , CD40LG , CHUK , CCR5 , MAPK14 , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GNAO1 , HLA-DMA , HLA-DMB , HLA-DOA , HLA-DOB , HLA-DPA1 , HLA-DPB1 , HLA-DQA1 , HLA-DQA2 , HLA-DQB1 , HLA-DRA , HLA-DRB1 , HLA-DRB5 , HSPA1A , HSPA1B , HSPA1L , HSPA2 , HSPA6 , HSPA8 , IFNG , IFNGR1 , IFNGR2 , IKBKB , IL10 , IL10RA , IL10RB , IL12A , IL12B , IRAK1 , ITGA6 , ITGB1 , JAK1 , JAK2 , LAMA2 , LAMA3 , LAMA4 , LAMA5 , LAMB1 , LAMB2 , LAMB3 , LAMC1 , LAMC2 , LDLR , CIITA , MYD88 , NFKB1 , NFKBIA , NFKBIB , NOS2 , PDPK1 , PIK3CG , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK8 , MAPK11 , MAPK9 , MAPK10 , MAPK13 , MAP2K3 , MAP2K6 , RELA , MAPK12 , STAT1 , STAT3 , MAP3K7 , TGFB1 , TGFB2 , TGFB3 , TLR2 , TLR4 , TNF , TNFRSF1A , TRAF6 , TYK2 , IKBKG , SOCS1 , AKT3 , PPIF , LAMC3 , TAB1 , LAMB4 , TAB2 , PIK3R5 , LY96 , IRAK4 , CYCS , BIRC7 , BIRC8 , PIK3R6 , LAMA1 , IRGM ,