description
Dietary carbohydrate in humans and omnivorous animals is a major nutrient. The carbohydrates that we ingest vary from the lactose in milk to complex carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are digested to monosaccharides, mostly glucose, galactose and fructose, prior to absorption in the small intestine. Glucose and galactose are initially transported into the enterocyte by SGLT1 located in the apical brush border membrane and then exit through the basolateral membrane by either GLUT2 or exocytosis. In a new model of intestinal glucose absorption, transport by SGLT1 induces rapid insertion and activation of GLUT2 in the brush border membrane by a PKC betaII-dependent mechanism. Moreover, trafficking of apical GLUT2 is rapidly up-regulated by glucose and artificial sweeteners, which act through T1R2 + T1R3/alpha-gustducin to activate PLC-beta2 and PKC-beta II. Fructose is transported separately by the brush border GLUT5 and then released out of the enterocyte into the blood by GLUT2

external resources
NCBI:170720
KEGG:hsa04973
PUBMED:11562503
PUBMED:19001049
PUBMED:12512027
PUBMED:5089892
PUBMED:12583961
PUBMED:7555019
PUBMED:11427691
PUBMED:12750891
PUBMED:16186415
PUBMED:20522896
PUBMED:16586532
PUBMED:15546855
PUBMED:17222166
PUBMED:18393659
PUBMED:14642859

genes
AKT1 , AKT2 , AMY1A , AMY1B , AMY1C , AMY2A , AMY2B , ATP1A1 , ATP1A2 , ATP1A3 , ATP1A4 , ATP1B1 , ATP1B2 , ATP1B3 , FXYD2 , CACNA1D , G6PC , SLC37A4 , HK1 , HK2 , HK3 , LCT , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLCB2 , PRKCB , SI , SLC2A2 , SLC2A5 , SLC5A1 , PIK3R3 , MGAM , AKT3 , ATP1B4 , G6PC2 , HKDC1 , TAS1R2 , TAS1R3 , G6PC3 , MGAM2 , GNAT3 ,