description
Minerals are one of the five fundamental groups of nutrients needed to sustain life. Of the minerals, calcium plays innumerable roles in our bodies, serving as a main component of bone as well as an intracellular messenger in muscle contraction/relaxation, neural networks, the immune system, and endocrine/exocrine cells. Iron, copper, and other metals are required for redox reactions (as cofactors) and for oxygen transport and binding (in hemoglobin and myoglobin). Many enzymes require specific metal atoms to complete their catalytic functions. Animal tissues need moderate quantities of some elements (Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, and Cl) and trace amounts of others (Mn, Fe, I, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Se). The minerals are absorbed by either passive or active transport systems through the intestinal mucosa, often using specialized transport proteins, such as ferritin for Fe3+ and vitamin D-induced protein for calcium

external resources
NCBI:212237
KEGG:hsa04978
PUBMED:20120011
PUBMED:12520535
PUBMED:15618484
PUBMED:17194590
PUBMED:21054167
PUBMED:19448074
PUBMED:18779302
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PUBMED:16431934
PUBMED:19729436
PUBMED:18636652
PUBMED:17943492
PUBMED:16565477
PUBMED:18779306

genes
ATOX1 , ATP1A1 , ATP1A2 , ATP1A3 , ATP1A4 , ATP1B1 , ATP1B2 , ATP1B3 , FXYD2 , ATP2B1 , ATP7A , S100G , CLCN2 , SLC31A1 , SLC26A3 , FTH1 , FTL , HMOX1 , HMOX2 , MT1A , MT1B , MT1E , MT1F , MT1G , MT1H , MT1M , MT1X , MT2A , SLC11A2 , SLC5A1 , SLC8A1 , SLC9A3 , TF , VDR , SLC30A1 , HEPH , SLC34A2 , ATP1B4 , STEAP1 , SLC40A1 , TRPM7 , TRPV6 , SLC39A4 , SLC26A6 , CYBRD1 , SLC46A1 , SLC26A9 , TRPM6 , STEAP2 , SLC6A19 , MT1HL1 ,