description
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synaptic cleft, glutamate acts on postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) to mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission. Glutamate can also act on metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and exert a variety of modulatory effects through their coupling to G proteins and the subsequent recruitment of second messenger systems. Presynaptically localized Group II and Group III mGluRs are thought to represent the classical inhibitory autoreceptor mechanism that suppresses excess glutamate release. After its action on these receptors, glutamate can be removed from the synaptic cleft by EAATs located either on the presynaptic terminal, neighboring glial cells, or the postsynaptic neuron. In glia, glutamate is converted to glutamine, which is then transported back to the presynaptic terminal and converted back to glutamate

external resources
NCBI:213818
KEGG:hsa04724
PUBMED:10481192
PUBMED:11561058
PUBMED:18425072
PUBMED:17706608
PUBMED:20055706
PUBMED:19112153
PUBMED:17663464
PUBMED:19110202
PUBMED:19559598
PUBMED:9665875
PUBMED:11672421
PUBMED:18464791
PUBMED:12399578
PUBMED:14684436

genes
ADCY1 , ADCY2 , ADCY3 , ADCY5 , ADCY6 , ADCY7 , ADCY8 , ADCY9 , GRK2 , GRK3 , CACNA1A , CACNA1C , CACNA1D , DLG4 , GLS , GLUL , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GNAO1 , GNAQ , GNAS , GNB1 , GNB2 , GNB3 , GNG3 , GNG4 , GNG5 , GNG7 , GNG10 , GNG11 , GNGT1 , GNGT2 , GRIA1 , GRIA2 , GRIA3 , GRIA4 , GRIK1 , GRIK2 , GRIK3 , GRIK4 , GRIK5 , GRIN1 , GRIN2A , GRIN2B , GRIN2C , GRIN2D , GRM1 , GRM2 , GRM3 , GRM4 , GRM5 , GRM6 , GRM7 , GRM8 , ITPR1 , ITPR2 , ITPR3 , KCNJ3 , PLA2G4A , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PLD1 , PLD2 , PPP3CA , PPP3CB , PPP3CC , PPP3R1 , PPP3R2 , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCG , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , SLC1A1 , SLC1A2 , SLC1A3 , SLC1A6 , SLC1A7 , TRPC1 , PLA2G4C , JMJD7-PLA2G4B , DLGAP1 , HOMER3 , HOMER2 , HOMER1 , GNB5 , SLC38A3 , SHANK2 , PLCB1 , GLS2 , SHANK1 , GNG13 , GNG2 , SLC38A2 , GNG12 , SLC17A7 , SLC17A6 , GNB4 , SLC38A1 , SHANK3 , GNG8 , GRIN3A , GRIN3B , PLA2G4E , ADCY4 , SLC17A8 , PLA2G4F , PLA2G4D , PLA2G4B ,