description
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as learning, memory, attention and motor control. When released in the synaptic cleft, ACh binds to two distinct types of receptors: Ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and metabotropic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of nAChR by ACh leads to the rapid influx of Na+ and Ca2+ and subsequent cellular depolarization. Activation of mAChRs is relatively slow (milliseconds to seconds) and, depending on the subtypes present (M1-M5), they directly alter cellular homeostasis of phospholipase C, inositol trisphosphate, cAMP, and free calcium. In the cleft, ACh may also be hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) into choline and acetate. The choline derived from ACh hydrolysis is recovered by a presynaptic high-affinity choline transporter (CHT)

external resources
NCBI:217716
KEGG:hsa04725
PUBMED:20060019
PUBMED:11283752
PUBMED:15165747
PUBMED:12893537
PUBMED:11738031
PUBMED:21550798
PUBMED:19712465
PUBMED:12690458
PUBMED:12436417
PUBMED:19378880
PUBMED:11923408
PUBMED:20446119

genes
ACHE , ADCY1 , ADCY2 , ADCY3 , ADCY5 , ADCY6 , ADCY7 , ADCY8 , ADCY9 , AKT1 , AKT2 , ATF4 , BCL2 , CACNA1A , CACNA1B , CACNA1C , CACNA1D , CACNA1F , CACNA1S , CAMK4 , CAMK2A , CAMK2B , CAMK2D , CAMK2G , CHAT , CHRM1 , CHRM2 , CHRM3 , CHRM4 , CHRM5 , CHRNA3 , CHRNA4 , CHRNA7 , CHRNB2 , CHRNB4 , CREB1 , FOS , FYN , GNA11 , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GNAO1 , GNAQ , GNB1 , GNB2 , GNB3 , GNG3 , GNG4 , GNG5 , GNG7 , GNG10 , GNG11 , GNGT1 , GNGT2 , HRAS , ITPR1 , ITPR2 , ITPR3 , JAK2 , KCNJ2 , KCNJ3 , KCNJ4 , KCNJ6 , KCNJ12 , KCNJ14 , KCNQ1 , KCNQ2 , KCNQ3 , KRAS , NRAS , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3CG , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCG , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAP2K1 , SLC18A3 , PIK3R3 , CHRNA6 , KCNQ4 , CREB5 , AKT3 , CREB3 , GNB5 , PLCB1 , PIK3R5 , GNG13 , GNG2 , GNG12 , KCNQ5 , GNB4 , SLC5A7 , CREB3L2 , CREB3L3 , CREB3L1 , GNG8 , PIK3R6 , CREB3L4 , ADCY4 ,