description
Amphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), projection areas of mesocorticolimbic DA neurons and key components of the "brain reward circuit". Amphetamine achieves this elevation in extracellular levels of DA by promoting efflux from synaptic terminals. Acute administration of amphetamine induces phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and expression of a number of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-fos. The IEGs is likely to initiate downstream molecular events, which may have important roles in the induction and maintenance of addictive states. Chronic exposure to amphetamine induces a unique transcription factor delta FosB, which plays an essential role in long-term adaptive changes in the brain

external resources
NCBI:547607
KEGG:hsa05031
PUBMED:16776597
PUBMED:18617632
PUBMED:16724157
PUBMED:19222557
PUBMED:14746512
PUBMED:18632938
PUBMED:8630246
PUBMED:14622123
PUBMED:21338876
PUBMED:8753884
PUBMED:10774721
PUBMED:14529709
PUBMED:17728700
PUBMED:21989194
PUBMED:16151049
PUBMED:18440072
PUBMED:19199083
PUBMED:10414964

genes
ADCY5 , ATF4 , CACNA1C , CACNA1D , CALM1 , CALM2 , CALM3 , CALML3 , CAMK4 , CAMK2A , CAMK2B , CAMK2D , CAMK2G , CREB1 , ATF2 , ATF6B , DDC , DRD1 , FOS , FOSB , GNAS , GRIA1 , GRIA2 , GRIA3 , GRIA4 , GRIN1 , GRIN2A , GRIN2B , GRIN2C , GRIN2D , HDAC1 , JUN , MAOA , MAOB , PDYN , PPP1CA , PPP1CB , PPP1CC , PPP3CA , PPP3CB , PPP3CC , PPP3R1 , PPP3R2 , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCG , SLC6A3 , SLC18A1 , SLC18A2 , STX1A , TH , CREB5 , CREB3 , ARC , SIRT1 , CALML5 , CREB3L2 , PPP1R1B , CREB3L3 , CREB3L1 , CALML4 , GRIN3A , GRIN3B , CREB3L4 , CALML6 ,