description
Alcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the rewarding effects of alcohol, dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been identified. Acute exposure to alcohol stimulates dopamine release into the NAc, which activates D1 receptors, stimulating PKA signaling and subsequent CREB-mediated gene expression, whereas chronic alcohol exposure leads to an adaptive downregulation of this pathway, in particular of CREB function. The decreased CREB function in the NAc may promote the intake of drugs of abuse to achieve an increase in reward and thus may be involved in the regulation of positive affective states of addiction. PKA signaling also affects NMDA receptor activity and may play an important role in neuroadaptation in response to chronic alcohol exposure

external resources
NCBI:585563
KEGG:hsa05034
PUBMED:16764827
PUBMED:18616668
PUBMED:19077056
PUBMED:18991950
PUBMED:19756388
PUBMED:12068305
PUBMED:16102840
PUBMED:20947635
PUBMED:20729980
PUBMED:16278489
PUBMED:17270154
PUBMED:20626732
PUBMED:18310464
PUBMED:10774721
PUBMED:19342616
PUBMED:12605085
PUBMED:15500908
PUBMED:14729391
PUBMED:12085089
PUBMED:16776597

genes
ADCY5 , ADORA2A , ADORA2B , ARAF , ATF4 , BDNF , BRAF , CALM1 , CALM2 , CALM3 , CALML3 , CAMK4 , CREB1 , ATF2 , ATF6B , CRH , DDC , DRD1 , DRD2 , SLC29A1 , FOSB , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GNAO1 , GNAS , GNB1 , GNB2 , GNB3 , GNG3 , GNG4 , GNG5 , GNG7 , GNG10 , GNG11 , GNGT1 , GNGT2 , GRB2 , GRIN1 , GRIN2A , GRIN2B , GRIN2C , GRIN2D , HIST1H2AE , HIST1H2AD , H2AFX , H2AFZ , HIST1H2BD , HIST1H2BB , H3F3A , H3F3B , HDAC1 , HDAC2 , HRAS , KRAS , MAOA , MAOB , NPY , NRAS , NTRK2 , PDYN , PPP1CA , PPP1CB , PPP1CC , PRKACA , PKIA , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAP2K1 , RAF1 , SHC1 , SLC6A3 , SLC18A1 , SLC18A2 , SOS1 , SOS2 , TH , HIST3H3 , HIST1H4I , HIST1H2AI , HIST1H2AK , HIST1H2AJ , HIST1H2AL , HIST1H2AC , HIST1H2AB , HIST1H2AM , HIST2H2AA3 , HIST2H2AC , HIST1H2BG , HIST1H2BL , HIST1H2BN , HIST1H2BM , HIST1H2BF , HIST1H2BE , HIST1H2BH , HIST1H2BI , HIST1H2BC , HIST1H2BO , HIST2H2BE , HIST1H3A , HIST1H3D , HIST1H3C , HIST1H3E , HIST1H3I , HIST1H3G , HIST1H3J , HIST1H3H , HIST1H3B , HIST1H4A , HIST1H4D , HIST1H4F , HIST1H4K , HIST1H4J , HIST1H4C , HIST1H4H , HIST1H4B , HIST1H4E , HIST1H4L , HIST1H4G , HIST2H4A , HAT1 , HDAC3 , HIST1H3F , HIST1H2AG , HIST1H2BJ , H2AFY , CREB5 , HDAC9 , HDAC4 , HDAC6 , HDAC5 , CREB3 , CAMKK2 , GNB5 , SHC2 , HDAC7 , GNG13 , CALML5 , SHC3 , GNG2 , H2AFY2 , H2AFJ , HDAC8 , GNG12 , GNB4 , CREB3L2 , HDAC11 , H2AFB3 , HDAC10 , PPP1R1B , CAMKK1 , CREB3L3 , HIST1H2AH , HIST1H2BK , CREB3L1 , CALML4 , HIST3H2A , GNG8 , H2AFV , GRIN3A , GRIN3B , HIST4H4 , HIST2H3C , HIST3H2BB , CREB3L4 , H2BFWT , CALML6 , HIST1H2AA , HIST1H2BA , H2BFM , HIST2H2AB , HIST2H3A , SHC4 , H3F3C , HIST2H2BF , H2AFB2 , H2AFB1 , HIST2H4B , HIST2H3D , HIST2H2AA4 ,