description
Pancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. Glucose-induced insulin secretion and its potentiation constitute the principal mechanism of insulin release. Glucose is transported by the glucose transporter (GLUT) into the pancreatic beta-cell. Metabolism of glucose generates ATP, which inhibits ATP-sensitive K+ channels and causes voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx. Elevation of [Ca2+]i triggers exocytotic release of insulin granules. Insulin secretion is further regulated by several hormones and neurotransmitters. Peptide hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), increase cAMP levels and thereby potentiate insulin secretion via the combined action of PKA and Epac2. Achetylcholine (ACh), a major parasympathetic neurotransmitter, binds to Gq-coupled receptors and activates phospholipase C- (PLC-), and the stimulatory effects involve activation of protein kinase C (PKC), which stimulates exocytosis. In addition, ACh mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ by activation of IP3 receptors

external resources
NCBI:777534
KEGG:hsa04911
PUBMED:9715374
PUBMED:10605628
PUBMED:9914469
PUBMED:17306374
PUBMED:20055708
PUBMED:15655710
PUBMED:19817784
PUBMED:19074620
PUBMED:14693691
PUBMED:17084085
PUBMED:20551594
PUBMED:19036624
PUBMED:22970724
PUBMED:20225132
PUBMED:19817800
PUBMED:22974438
PUBMED:21934040
PUBMED:15271645
PUBMED:19660440
PUBMED:11522660

genes
ADCY1 , ADCY2 , ADCY3 , ADCY5 , ADCY6 , ADCY7 , ADCY8 , ADCY9 , ADCYAP1 , ADCYAP1R1 , ATF4 , ATP1A1 , ATP1A2 , ATP1A3 , ATP1A4 , ATP1B1 , ATP1B2 , ATP1B3 , FXYD2 , CACNA1C , CACNA1D , CACNA1F , CACNA1S , CAMK2A , CAMK2B , CAMK2D , CAMK2G , CCKAR , CHRM3 , CREB1 , ATF2 , ATF6B , GCG , GCK , GIP , GLP1R , GNA11 , GNAQ , GNAS , FFAR1 , INS , PDX1 , ITPR3 , KCNJ11 , KCNMA1 , KCNMB1 , KCNN1 , KCNN2 , KCNN3 , KCNN4 , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCG , RAB3A , RYR2 , SLC2A1 , SLC2A2 , SNAP25 , STX1A , ABCC8 , VAMP2 , CREB5 , RIMS2 , KCNMB2 , CREB3 , RAPGEF4 , PLCB1 , ATP1B4 , KCNMB3 , KCNMB4 , PCLO , TRPM4 , CREB3L2 , CREB3L3 , CREB3L1 , GPR119 , CREB3L4 , KCNU1 , ADCY4 ,