description
Many proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis and metastasis, affecting tumor progress. The four main types of proteoglycans include hyaluronan (HA), which does not occur as a PG but in free form, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), dematan sulfate proteoglycans (DSPG) and keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) [BR:00535]. Among these proteoglycans such as HA, acting with CD44, promotes tumor cell growth and migration, whereas other proteoglycans such as syndecans (-1~-4), glypican (-1, -3) and perlecan may interact with growth factors, cytokines, morphogens and enzymes through HS chains [BR: 00536], also leading to tumor growth and invasion. In contrast, some of the small leucine-rich proteolgycans, such as decorin and lumican, can function as tumor repressors, and modulate the signaling pathways by the interaction of their core proteins and multiple receptors

external resources
NCBI:782000
KEGG:hsa05205
PUBMED:19433454
PUBMED:20655987
PUBMED:18798267
PUBMED:10633082
PUBMED:10687947
PUBMED:22735579
PUBMED:24412155
PUBMED:9346940
PUBMED:22087031
PUBMED:22194599
PUBMED:14711376
PUBMED:19255147
PUBMED:15655247
PUBMED:11717317
PUBMED:17971838
PUBMED:18413366
PUBMED:20974860
PUBMED:11830493
PUBMED:23058688
PUBMED:18450475
PUBMED:12748184
PUBMED:19733083
PUBMED:18812315
PUBMED:12509413
PUBMED:21155971
PUBMED:11931647
PUBMED:18949819
PUBMED:12729888
PUBMED:15994311
PUBMED:23305321
PUBMED:18505598
PUBMED:22563565
PUBMED:22033227

genes
ACTB , ACTG1 , AKT1 , AKT2 , ANK1 , ANK2 , ANK3 , FAS , FASLG , ARAF , RHOA , CCND1 , BRAF , CAMK2A , CAMK2B , CAMK2D , CAMK2G , CASP3 , CAV1 , CAV2 , CAV3 , CBL , CBLB , CD44 , CD63 , CDC42 , CDKN1A , MAPK14 , CTNNB1 , CTSL , DCN , DDX5 , HBEGF , EGFR , EIF4B , ELK1 , CTTN , ERBB2 , ERBB3 , ERBB4 , ESR1 , FGF2 , FGFR1 , FLNA , FLNB , FLNC , FN1 , MTOR , FZD2 , GAB1 , GPC3 , GPC1 , GRB2 , HCLS1 , HGF , HIF1A , HOXD10 , HRAS , HSPB2 , HSPG2 , IGF1 , IGF1R , IGF2 , IHH , IL12B , ITGA2 , ITGA5 , ITGAV , ITGB1 , ITGB3 , ITGB5 , ITPR1 , ITPR2 , ITPR3 , KDR , KRAS , LUM , SMAD2 , MDM2 , MET , MMP2 , MMP9 , MSN , MYC , PPP1R12A , PPP1R12B , NRAS , PAK1 , PDPK1 , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLAU , PLAUR , PLCG1 , PLCG2 , PPP1CA , PPP1CB , PPP1CC , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCG , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK11 , MAPK13 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , PTCH1 , PTK2 , PTPN6 , PTPN11 , PXN , RAC1 , RAF1 , RDX , ROCK1 , RPS6 , RPS6KB1 , RPS6KB2 , RRAS , MAPK12 , SDC1 , SDC2 , SDC4 , SHH , SLC9A1 , SMO , SOS1 , SOS2 , SRC , STAT3 , TFAP4 , TGFB1 , TGFB2 , THBS1 , TIAM1 , TIMP3 , TLR2 , TLR4 , TNF , TP53 , TWIST1 , VAV2 , VEGFA , EZR , VTN , WNT1 , WNT2 , WNT3 , WNT5A , WNT6 , WNT7A , WNT7B , WNT8A , WNT8B , WNT10B , WNT11 , WNT2B , WNT9A , WNT9B , FZD5 , FZD3 , FZD1 , FZD4 , FZD6 , FZD7 , FZD8 , FZD9 , PIK3R3 , IQGAP1 , ARHGEF1 , ROCK2 , AKT3 , FRS2 , HPSE , FZD10 , RRAS2 , MRAS , ARHGEF12 , CBLC , PDCD4 , DROSHA , PLCE1 , WNT16 , WNT4 , PPP1R12C , HPSE2 , NANOG , WNT10A , WNT5B , COL21A1 , NUDT16L1 , WNT3A , TWIST2 , MIR10A , MIR10B , MIR21 ,