description
Estrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. Estrogen mediates its cellular actions through two signaling pathways classified as "nuclear-initiated steroid signaling" and "membrane-initiated steroid signaling". In the "nuclear" pathway, estrogen binds either ERalpha or ERbeta, which in turn translocates to the nucleus, binds DNA at ERE elements and activates the expression of ERE-dependent genes. In "membrane" pathway, Estrogen can exert its actions through a subpopulation of ER at the plasma membrane (mER) or novel G-protein coupled E2 receptors (GPER). Upon activation of these receptors various signaling pathways (i.e. Ca2+, cAMP, protein kinase cascades) are rapidly activated and ultimately influence downstream transcription factors

external resources
NCBI:799177
KEGG:hsa04915
PUBMED:15695368
PUBMED:16112267
PUBMED:9278514
PUBMED:19187465
PUBMED:12421825
PUBMED:12650715
PUBMED:18253054
PUBMED:16516516
PUBMED:14573532
PUBMED:18755790
PUBMED:18538919
PUBMED:19767412
PUBMED:14993035
PUBMED:19549587
PUBMED:15862823
PUBMED:20694192
PUBMED:19464786
PUBMED:21779010
PUBMED:16270355
PUBMED:21742056
PUBMED:19700741
PUBMED:21844907

genes
ADCY1 , ADCY2 , ADCY3 , ADCY5 , ADCY6 , ADCY7 , ADCY8 , ADCY9 , AKT1 , AKT2 , ATF4 , CALM1 , CALM2 , CALM3 , CALML3 , CREB1 , ATF2 , ATF6B , HBEGF , EGFR , ESR1 , ESR2 , FKBP4 , FKBP5 , FOS , GABBR1 , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GNAO1 , GNAQ , GNAS , GPER1 , GRB2 , GRM1 , HRAS , HSPA1A , HSPA1B , HSPA1L , HSPA2 , HSPA6 , HSPA8 , HSP90AA1 , HSP90AB1 , ITPR1 , ITPR2 , ITPR3 , JUN , KCNJ3 , KCNJ5 , KCNJ6 , KCNJ9 , KRAS , MMP2 , MMP9 , NOS3 , NRAS , OPRM1 , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKCD , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , RAF1 , SHC1 , SOS1 , SOS2 , SP1 , SRC , HSP90B1 , PIK3R3 , GABBR2 , CREB5 , AKT3 , CREB3 , PLCB1 , SHC2 , CALML5 , SHC3 , CREB3L2 , CREB3L3 , CREB3L1 , CALML4 , CREB3L4 , CALML6 , ADCY4 , SHC4 ,