description
Thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are essential for normal development, growth and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates, and synthesized in the thyroid gland. The functional unit of the thyroid gland is the follicle, delimited by a monolayer of thyrocytes. Polarized thyrocytes surround the follicular lumen; with their basal and apical surfaces facing the bloodstream and the lumen, respectively. To synthesize thyroid hormones, thyrocytes take up iodide at their basal side and concentrate it into the lumen. They also secrete in this lumen the specialized protein thyroglobulin (TG) which serves as a store for the hormones. In the follicular lumen oxidation of iodine, iodination of tyrosines (MIT, 3-monoiodotyrosine; DIT, 3,5-diiodotyrosine) and coupling of iodotyrosines takes place on tyrosine residues in TG, resulting in T3 and T4 synthesis. Iodinated TG is resorbed through the apical membrane and degraded to form T3/T4 in lysosomes; the T3/T4 is then secreted through the basal membrane

external resources
NCBI:835410
KEGG:hsa04918
PUBMED:21448409
PUBMED:9086577
PUBMED:21986207
PUBMED:11137035
PUBMED:17666482
PUBMED:20407074
PUBMED:20093166
PUBMED:20122987
PUBMED:15611820
PUBMED:20378719
PUBMED:23438835
PUBMED:11717564
PUBMED:16870170
PUBMED:19196800
PUBMED:9538302
PUBMED:11029276
PUBMED:20167242
PUBMED:10893432
PUBMED:21683758

genes
ADCY1 , ADCY2 , ADCY3 , ADCY5 , ADCY6 , ADCY7 , ADCY8 , ADCY9 , ALB , ASGR1 , ASGR2 , ATF4 , ATP1A1 , ATP1A2 , ATP1A3 , ATP1A4 , ATP1B1 , ATP1B2 , ATP1B3 , FXYD2 , CANX , CGA , CREB1 , ATF2 , ATF6B , GNAQ , GNAS , GPX1 , GPX2 , GPX3 , GPX5 , GPX7 , GSR , HSPA5 , ITPR1 , ITPR2 , ITPR3 , LRP2 , SLC26A4 , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCG , SLC5A5 , SERPINA7 , TG , TPO , HSP90B1 , TSHB , TSHR , TTF1 , TTR , PAX8 , TTF2 , CREB5 , PDIA4 , CREB3 , PLCB1 , ATP1B4 , DUOX2 , CREB3L2 , CREB3L3 , CREB3L1 , CREB3L4 , ADCY4 , GPX6 , IYD , DUOXA2 , GPX8 ,