description
Cardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, and alpha-1C). In the human heart the beta-1-AR is the pre- dominate receptor. Acute sympathetic stimulation of cardiac beta-1-ARs induces positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, the most effective mechanism to acutely increase output of the heart, by coupling to Gs, formation of cAMP by adenylyl cyclase (AC), and PKA- dependent phosphorylation of various target proteins (e.g., ryanodine receptor [RyR]; phospholamban [PLB], troponin I [TnI], and the L-type Ca2+ channel [LTCC]). Chronic beta-1-AR stimulation is detrimental and induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. beta-2-AR coupled to Gs exerts a proapoptotic action as well as beta-1-AR, while beta-2-AR coupled to Gi exerts an antiapoptotic action

external resources
NCBI:908257
KEGG:hsa04261
PUBMED:15232578
PUBMED:20923637
PUBMED:10571541
PUBMED:11604549
PUBMED:17988210
PUBMED:11805843
PUBMED:15142747
PUBMED:21212391
PUBMED:20658186
PUBMED:16765984
PUBMED:19874988
PUBMED:19883653
PUBMED:15979723
PUBMED:18407781
PUBMED:22022314
PUBMED:12439640
PUBMED:17826821
PUBMED:15765137

genes
ACTC1 , ADCY1 , ADCY2 , ADCY3 , ADCY5 , ADCY6 , ADCY7 , ADCY8 , ADCY9 , ADRA1D , ADRA1B , ADRA1A , ADRB1 , ADRB2 , AGTR1 , AGTR2 , AKT1 , AKT2 , ATF4 , ATP1A1 , ATP1A2 , ATP1A3 , ATP1A4 , ATP1B1 , ATP1B2 , ATP1B3 , FXYD2 , ATP2A2 , ATP2B1 , ATP2B2 , ATP2B3 , ATP2B4 , BCL2 , CACNA1C , CACNA1D , CACNA1F , CACNA1S , CACNA2D1 , CACNB1 , CACNB2 , CACNB3 , CACNB4 , CACNG1 , CALM1 , CALM2 , CALM3 , CALML3 , CAMK2A , CAMK2B , CAMK2D , CAMK2G , CREB1 , ATF2 , ATF6B , CREM , MAPK14 , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GNAQ , GNAS , KCNE1 , KCNQ1 , MYH6 , MYH7 , MYL2 , MYL3 , MYL4 , PIK3CG , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PLN , PPP1CA , PPP1CB , PPP1CC , PPP1R1A , PPP2CA , PPP2CB , PPP2R1A , PPP2R1B , PPP2R2A , PPP2R2B , PPP2R2C , PPP2R3A , PPP2R5A , PPP2R5B , PPP2R5C , PPP2R5D , PPP2R5E , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKCA , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK11 , MAPK13 , RYR2 , MAPK12 , SCN1B , SCN4B , SCN5A , SCN7A , SLC8A1 , SLC9A1 , TNNC1 , TNNI3 , TNNT2 , TPM1 , TPM2 , TPM3 , TPM4 , RPS6KA5 , CACNA2D2 , CREB5 , AKT3 , CACNG3 , CACNG2 , RAPGEF3 , CREB3 , RAPGEF4 , PLCB1 , ATP1B4 , PIK3R5 , CACNG5 , CACNG4 , PPP2R3B , CALML5 , PPP2R3C , CACNA2D3 , PPP2R2D , CACNG8 , CACNG7 , CACNG6 , CREB3L2 , CREB3L3 , CREB3L1 , CALML4 , CACNA2D4 , PIK3R6 , CREB3L4 , CALML6 , ADCY4 ,