description
The forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative stress resistance, and longevity. A central regulatory mechanism of FOXO proteins is phosphorylation by the serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), in response to insulin or several growth factors. Phosphorylation at three conserved residues results in the export of FOXO proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, thereby decreasing expression of FOXO target genes. In contrast, the stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the energy sensing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), upon oxidative and nutrient stress stimuli phosphorylate and activate FoxOs. Aside from PKB, JNK and AMPK, FOXOs are regulated by multiple players through several post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, but also acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation

external resources
NCBI:921162
KEGG:hsa04068
PUBMED:23325358
PUBMED:15005655
PUBMED:18951090
PUBMED:22761423
PUBMED:22902436
PUBMED:16288288
PUBMED:19701188
PUBMED:16964248
PUBMED:18045156
PUBMED:18403263
PUBMED:21613825
PUBMED:21440011
PUBMED:17470511
PUBMED:21238503
PUBMED:17522590
PUBMED:15084259
PUBMED:23801966
PUBMED:17569704
PUBMED:15516968

genes
AKT1 , AKT2 , FASLG , ARAF , ATM , CCND1 , BCL6 , BNIP3 , BRAF , CAT , CCNB1 , CCND2 , CCNG2 , CDK2 , CDKN1A , CDKN1B , CDKN2B , CDKN2D , CHUK , PLK3 , CREBBP , MAPK14 , CSNK1E , GADD45A , S1PR1 , EGF , EGFR , EP300 , FOXG1 , FOXO1 , FOXO3 , G6PC , GRB2 , GRM1 , HRAS , PRMT1 , IGF1 , IGF1R , IKBKB , IL6 , IL7R , IL10 , INS , INSR , IRS1 , KRAS , SMAD2 , SMAD3 , SMAD4 , MDM2 , FOXO4 , GADD45B , NRAS , PCK1 , PCK2 , PDPK1 , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLK1 , PRKAA1 , PRKAA2 , PRKAB1 , PRKAB2 , PRKAG1 , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK8 , MAPK11 , MAPK9 , MAPK10 , MAPK13 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , PTEN , RAF1 , RAG1 , RAG2 , RBL2 , MAPK12 , SGK1 , SKP2 , SLC2A4 , SOD2 , SOS1 , SOS2 , STAT3 , STK4 , STK11 , TGFB1 , TGFB2 , TGFB3 , TGFBR1 , TGFBR2 , USP7 , IRS4 , PIK3R3 , IRS2 , S1PR4 , TNFSF10 , CCNB2 , ATG12 , HOMER3 , HOMER2 , HOMER1 , AKT3 , BCL2L11 , SGK2 , KLF2 , PLK4 , PLK2 , GADD45G , GABARAP , GABARAPL2 , SIRT1 , SGK3 , GABARAPL1 , FBXO25 , PRKAG2 , NLK , PRKAG3 , G6PC2 , SETD7 , CCNB3 , G6PC3 , FBXO32 , AGAP2 , C8orf44-SGK3 ,