description
The thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) and T3 enter the cell through transporter proteins. Although the major form of TH in the blood is T4, it is converted to the more active hormone T3 within cells. T3 binds to nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), which functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor and controls the expression of target genes (genomic action). Nongenomic mechanisms of action is initiated at the integrin receptor. The plasma membrane alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin has distinct binding sites for T3 and T4. One binding site binds only T3 and activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. The other binding site binds both T3 and T4 and activates the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway

external resources
NCBI:946598
KEGG:hsa04919
PUBMED:20005976
PUBMED:17983645
PUBMED:15345678
PUBMED:16951130
PUBMED:16214361
PUBMED:18329679
PUBMED:20051527
PUBMED:17574003
PUBMED:19716314
PUBMED:19755667
PUBMED:20868274
PUBMED:21835053
PUBMED:16051672
PUBMED:19295177
PUBMED:23021374
PUBMED:22484490

genes
ACTB , ACTG1 , AKT1 , AKT2 , ATP1A1 , ATP1A2 , ATP1A3 , ATP1A4 , ATP1B1 , ATP1B2 , ATP1B3 , FXYD2 , ATP2A2 , BAD , CCND1 , BMP4 , CASP9 , CREBBP , CTNNB1 , DIO1 , DIO2 , DIO3 , RCAN1 , EP300 , ESR1 , FOXO1 , MTOR , GATA4 , KAT2A , GSK3B , HDAC1 , HDAC2 , HIF1A , HRAS , ITGAV , ITGB3 , KRAS , MDM2 , MYC , MYH6 , NOTCH1 , NOTCH2 , NOTCH3 , NOTCH4 , NRAS , PDPK1 , PFKFB2 , PFKP , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PLCD1 , PLCG1 , PLCG2 , PLN , MED1 , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCG , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , RAF1 , RHEB , RXRA , RXRB , RXRG , SLC2A1 , SLC9A1 , SLC16A2 , SRC , STAT1 , THRA , THRB , TP53 , TSC2 , NCOA3 , PIK3R3 , NCOA1 , HDAC3 , KAT2B , MED14 , MED17 , MED27 , NCOR1 , MED24 , TBC1D4 , MED12 , MED13 , AKT3 , MED16 , RCAN2 , NCOA2 , PLCB1 , MED13L , ATP1B4 , SIN3A , MED4 , PLCE1 , SLCO1C1 , WNT4 , PLCD4 , PLCZ1 , MED30 , PLCD3 , MED12L , SLC16A10 ,