description
Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated intracellular cGMP level exerts its physiological action through two forms of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases (PDE2, PDE3) and cGMP-gated cation channels, among which PKGs might be the primary mediator. PKG1 isoform-specific activation of established substrates leads to reduction of cytosolic calcium concentration and/or decrease in the sensitivity of myofilaments to Ca2+ (Ca2+-desensitization), resulting in smooth muscle relaxation. In cardiac myocyte, PKG directly phosphorylates a member of the transient potential receptor canonical channel family, TRPC6, suppressing this nonselective ion channel's Ca2+ conductance, G-alpha-q agonist-induced NFAT activation, and myocyte hypertrophic responses. PKG also opens mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (mitoKATP) channels and subsequent release of ROS triggers cardioprotection

external resources
NCBI:983748
KEGG:hsa04022
PUBMED:18006449
PUBMED:9003029
PUBMED:18040025
PUBMED:19306895
PUBMED:21666108
PUBMED:12524221
PUBMED:16460276
PUBMED:20716671
PUBMED:22785374
PUBMED:11522789
PUBMED:16439998
PUBMED:16371594
PUBMED:20388537
PUBMED:18757523
PUBMED:16815627
PUBMED:23212367
PUBMED:21685243
PUBMED:20024580
PUBMED:15894227
PUBMED:22965426
PUBMED:17643091
PUBMED:19176601
PUBMED:19961855

genes
ADCY1 , ADCY2 , ADCY3 , ADCY5 , ADCY6 , ADCY7 , ADCY8 , ADCY9 , ADORA1 , ADORA3 , ADRA1D , ADRA1B , ADRA1A , ADRA2A , ADRA2B , ADRA2C , ADRB1 , ADRB2 , ADRB3 , AGTR1 , AKT1 , AKT2 , SLC25A4 , SLC25A5 , SLC25A6 , RHOA , ATF4 , ATP1A1 , ATP1A2 , ATP1A3 , ATP1A4 , ATP1B1 , ATP1B2 , ATP1B3 , FXYD2 , ATP2A1 , ATP2A2 , ATP2A3 , ATP2B1 , ATP2B2 , ATP2B3 , ATP2B4 , BAD , BDKRB2 , CACNA1C , CACNA1D , CACNA1F , CACNA1S , CALM1 , CALM2 , CALM3 , CALML3 , CNGB1 , CNGA1 , CREB1 , ATF2 , ATF6B , EDNRA , EDNRB , GATA4 , GNA11 , GNA12 , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GNAQ , GTF2I , GUCY1A2 , GUCY1A1 , GUCY1B1 , INS , INSR , IRS1 , ITPR1 , ITPR2 , ITPR3 , KCNJ8 , KCNMA1 , KCNMB1 , MEF2A , BORCS8-MEF2B , MEF2C , MEF2D , MYH7 , MYLK , PPP1R12A , NFATC1 , NFATC2 , NFATC3 , NFATC4 , NOS3 , NPPB , NPR1 , NPR2 , OPRD1 , PDE2A , PDE3A , PDE3B , PIK3CG , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PLN , PPP1CA , PPP1CB , PPP1CC , PPP3CA , PPP3CB , PPP3CC , PPP3R1 , PPP3R2 , PRKCE , PRKG1 , PRKG2 , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , RAF1 , RGS2 , ROCK1 , SLC8A2 , SLC8A1 , SLC8A3 , SRF , TRPC6 , VASP , VDAC1 , VDAC2 , VDAC3 , IRS4 , PDE5A , IRS2 , ROCK2 , GTF2IRD1 , CREB5 , AKT3 , PPIF , KCNMB2 , MRVI1 , MYL9 , CREB3 , GNA13 , PLCB1 , ATP1B4 , PIK3R5 , KCNMB3 , KCNMB4 , CALML5 , CREB3L2 , SLC25A31 , CREB3L3 , MYLK2 , CREB3L1 , MYLK3 , CALML4 , PIK3R6 , CREB3L4 , KCNU1 , CALML6 , ADCY4 , MYLK4 , MEF2B ,