description
cAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands including hormones, neurotransmitters, and other signaling molecules. cAMP regulates pivotal physiologic processes including metabolism, secretion, calcium homeostasis, muscle contraction, cell fate, and gene transcription. cAMP acts directly on three main targets: protein kinase A (PKA), the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs). PKA modulates, via phosphorylation, a number of cellular substrates, including transcription factors, ion channels, transporters, exchangers, intracellular Ca2+ -handling proteins, and the contractile machinery. Epac proteins function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for both Rap1 and Rap2. Various effector proteins, including adaptor proteins implicated in modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, regulators of G proteins of the Rho family, and phospholipases, relay signaling downstream from Rap

external resources
NCBI:1017634
KEGG:hsa04024
PUBMED:10880354
PUBMED:9204709
PUBMED:21693691
PUBMED:24062645
PUBMED:24450633
PUBMED:21346730
PUBMED:24613710
PUBMED:21744067
PUBMED:22082266
PUBMED:16460276
PUBMED:18176800
PUBMED:14715909
PUBMED:7688165
PUBMED:24281338
PUBMED:11117527
PUBMED:16765984
PUBMED:18323530
PUBMED:18064650
PUBMED:21852968
PUBMED:11493633
PUBMED:21212391
PUBMED:15142747
PUBMED:17077866
PUBMED:19460777
PUBMED:19874988
PUBMED:16571352
PUBMED:22022314

genes
ACOX1 , ADCY1 , ADCY2 , ADCY3 , ADCY5 , ADCY6 , ADCY7 , ADCY8 , ADCY9 , ADCYAP1R1 , ADORA1 , ADORA2A , ADRB1 , ADRB2 , AKT1 , AKT2 , AMH , RHOA , ATP1A1 , ATP1A2 , ATP1A3 , ATP1A4 , ATP1B1 , ATP1B2 , ATP1B3 , FXYD2 , ATP2A2 , ATP2B1 , ATP2B2 , ATP2B3 , ATP2B4 , BAD , HCN2 , BDNF , BRAF , CACNA1C , CACNA1D , CACNA1F , CACNA1S , CALM1 , CALM2 , CALM3 , CALML3 , CAMK4 , CAMK2A , CAMK2B , CAMK2D , CAMK2G , CFTR , CHRM1 , CHRM2 , CNGB1 , CNGA1 , CNGA2 , CNGA3 , CNGA4 , CREB1 , CREBBP , DRD1 , DRD2 , DRD5 , EDNRA , EP300 , F2R , FOS , FSHB , FSHR , GABBR1 , GHSR , GIPR , GLI1 , GLI3 , GLP1R , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GNAS , FFAR2 , GRIA1 , GRIA2 , GRIA3 , GRIA4 , GRIN1 , GRIN2A , GRIN2B , GRIN2C , GRIN2D , HTR1A , HTR1B , HTR1D , HTR1E , HTR1F , HTR4 , HTR6 , JUN , LIPE , MC2R , AFDN , PPP1R12A , NFATC1 , NFKB1 , NFKBIA , NPY , NPR1 , NPY1R , OXTR , PAK1 , PDE3A , PDE3B , PDE4A , PDE4B , PDE4C , PDE4D , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLD1 , PLD2 , FXYD1 , PLN , PPARA , PPP1CA , PPP1CB , PPP1CC , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK8 , MAPK9 , MAPK10 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , PTCH1 , PTGER2 , PTGER3 , RAC1 , RAC2 , RAC3 , RAF1 , RAP1A , RAP1B , RELA , ROCK1 , RRAS , RYR2 , SLC9A1 , SOX9 , SSTR1 , SSTR2 , SSTR5 , TIAM1 , TNNI3 , TSHR , VAV1 , VAV2 , VIPR2 , ACOX3 , PIK3R3 , HCAR3 , ROCK2 , GABBR2 , CREB5 , AKT3 , HCN4 , ABCC4 , MYL9 , RAPGEF3 , VAV3 , CREB3 , RAPGEF4 , RRAS2 , ATP1B4 , HCAR1 , PLCE1 , GHRL , CALML5 , CNGB3 , ADCY10 , SUCNR1 , HHIP , ARAP3 , CREB3L2 , PPP1R1B , CREB3L3 , ORAI1 , CREB3L1 , CALML4 , GRIN3A , GRIN3B , GPR119 , CREB3L4 , CALML6 , ADCY4 , HCAR2 ,