description
Abnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS and PI3K-AKT pathways, and transcription factors associated with oncogenesis such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) mediate overexpression and activation of choline cycle enzymes, which causes increased levels of choline-containing precursors and breakdown products of membrane phospholipids. These products of choline phospholipid metabolism, such as phosphocholine (PCho), diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid, may function as second messengers that are essential for the mitogenic activity of growth factors, particularly in the activation of the ras-raf-1-MAPK cascade and protein kinase C pathway

external resources
NCBI:1059539
KEGG:hsa05231
PUBMED:23076158
PUBMED:19264150
PUBMED:16230400
PUBMED:23350810
PUBMED:22429397
PUBMED:16432178
PUBMED:19136975
PUBMED:22089420
PUBMED:14517341
PUBMED:22921309
PUBMED:19855431
PUBMED:20528734
PUBMED:19935796
PUBMED:14523987
PUBMED:21793073

genes
AKT1 , AKT2 , CHKA , CHKB , DGKA , DGKB , DGKG , DGKQ , EGF , EGFR , EIF4EBP1 , FOS , MTOR , GRB2 , HIF1A , HRAS , JUN , KRAS , NRAS , PCYT1A , PDGFA , PDGFB , PDGFRA , PDGFRB , PDPK1 , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLA2G4A , PLCG1 , PLD1 , PLD2 , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCG , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK8 , MAPK9 , MAPK10 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , RAC1 , RAC2 , RAC3 , RAF1 , RALGDS , RHEB , RPS6KB1 , RPS6KB2 , SLC22A1 , SLC22A3 , SLC22A2 , SLC22A4 , SLC22A5 , SOS1 , SOS2 , SP1 , TSC1 , TSC2 , WAS , PIP5K1A , PIP5K1B , PIK3R3 , DGKZ , DGKE , DGKD , PLA2G4C , PLPP1 , PLPP2 , PLPP3 , JMJD7-PLA2G4B , WASF1 , WASL , DGKI , PCYT1B , AKT3 , WASF2 , LYPLA1 , WASF3 , PIP5K1C , SLC44A1 , PDGFC , GPCPD1 , CHPT1 , SLC44A2 , SLC5A7 , PDGFD , SLC44A4 , PLA2G4E , SLC44A3 , DGKK , DGKH , SLC44A5 , PLA2G4F , PLA2G4D , PLA2G4B ,