description
Sphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have emerged as a new class of potent bioactive molecules. Ceramide can be generated de novo or by hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin by sphingomyelinase (SMase). Ceramide is subsequently metabolized by ceramidase to generate sphingosine (Sph) which in turn produces S1P through phosphorylation by sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1, 2). Both ceramide and S1P regulate cellular responses to stress, with generally opposing effects. S1P functions as a growth and survival factor, acting as a ligand for a family of G protein-coupled receptors, whereas ceramide activates intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways through receptor-independent mechanisms

external resources
NCBI:1144995
KEGG:hsa04071
PUBMED:23919551
PUBMED:21705677
PUBMED:18675379
PUBMED:20534702
PUBMED:15999095
PUBMED:16470226
PUBMED:11001563
PUBMED:17913601
PUBMED:17161984
PUBMED:22654878
PUBMED:17438574
PUBMED:18216770
PUBMED:11418646
PUBMED:10880336
PUBMED:15451787
PUBMED:25309325
PUBMED:18403224

genes
ADORA1 , ADORA3 , AKT1 , AKT2 , RHOA , ASAH1 , BAX , BCL2 , BDKRB2 , BID , MAPK14 , CTSD , S1PR1 , S1PR3 , FCER1A , MS4A2 , FCER1G , FYN , GNA12 , GNAI1 , GNAI2 , GNAI3 , GNAQ , HRAS , KRAS , MAP3K5 , ABCC1 , NFKB1 , NOS3 , NRAS , OPRD1 , PDPK1 , PIK3CA , PIK3CB , PIK3CD , PIK3R1 , PIK3R2 , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PLD1 , PLD2 , PPP2CA , PPP2CB , PPP2R1A , PPP2R1B , PPP2R2A , PPP2R2B , PPP2R2C , PPP2R3A , PPP2R5A , PPP2R5B , PPP2R5C , PPP2R5D , PPP2R5E , PRKCA , PRKCB , PRKCE , PRKCG , PRKCZ , MAPK1 , MAPK3 , MAPK8 , MAPK11 , MAPK9 , MAPK10 , MAPK13 , MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 , PTEN , RAC1 , RAC2 , RAC3 , RAF1 , RELA , ROCK1 , MAPK12 , SMPD1 , SMPD2 , TNF , TNFRSF1A , TP53 , TRAF2 , NSMAF , PIK3R3 , DEGS1 , S1PR4 , TRADD , SPHK1 , SGPL1 , S1PR2 , ROCK2 , SPTLC2 , GAB2 , AKT3 , SPTLC1 , GNA13 , CERS1 , PLCB1 , PPP2R3B , CERS2 , S1PR5 , PPP2R3C , SPTLC3 , PPP2R2D , ASAH2 , SPHK2 , CERS4 , SGPP1 , CERS5 , DEGS2 , ACER1 , SGPP2 , SGMS2 , CERS3 , CERS6 , SGMS1 , ACER2 ,