description
Glucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase blood glucose, glucagon promotes hepatic glucose output by increasing glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and by decreasing glycogenesis and glycolysis in a concerted fashion via multiple mechanisms. Glucagon also stimulates hepatic mitochondrial beta-oxidation to supply energy for glucose production. Glucagon performs its main effect via activation of adenylate cyclase. The adenylate-cyclase-derived cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA), which then phosphorylates downstream targets, such as cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/ fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (one of the isoforms being PFK/FBPase 1, encoded by PFKFB1)

external resources
NCBI:1144996
KEGG:hsa04922
PUBMED:20735177
PUBMED:19912989
PUBMED:21941300
PUBMED:22249520
PUBMED:12626323
PUBMED:16601267
PUBMED:18669612
PUBMED:24393785
PUBMED:21346730
PUBMED:22550228
PUBMED:16479585
PUBMED:24692138
PUBMED:22495310
PUBMED:22796337
PUBMED:22004992
PUBMED:24238363
PUBMED:22503562

genes
ACACA , ACACB , ADCY2 , AKT1 , AKT2 , ATF4 , CALM1 , CALM2 , CALM3 , CALML3 , CAMK2A , CAMK2B , CAMK2D , CAMK2G , CPT1A , CPT1B , CREB1 , ATF2 , CREBBP , EP300 , FBP1 , FOXO1 , G6PC , GCG , GCGR , GCK , GNAQ , GNAS , GYS1 , GYS2 , PRMT1 , ITPR1 , ITPR2 , ITPR3 , LDHA , LDHB , LDHC , PCK1 , PCK2 , PDE3B , PDHA1 , PDHA2 , PDHB , PFKFB1 , PFKL , PGAM1 , PGAM2 , PHKA1 , PHKA2 , PHKB , PHKG1 , PHKG2 , PKM , PLCB2 , PLCB3 , PLCB4 , PPARA , PPP3CA , PPP4C , PPP3CB , PPP3CC , PPP3R1 , PPP3R2 , PRKAA1 , PRKAA2 , PRKAB1 , PRKAB2 , PRKACA , PRKACB , PRKACG , PRKAG1 , PYGB , PYGL , PYGM , SLC2A1 , SLC2A2 , CREB5 , AKT3 , CREB3 , PPARGC1A , SIK2 , PLCB1 , SIRT1 , PRKAG2 , CALML5 , PRKAG3 , PPP4R3A , PPP4R3B , G6PC2 , CREB3L2 , CREB3L3 , CREB3L1 , CALML4 , LDHAL6B , G6PC3 , CPT1C , CREB3L4 , SIK1 , LDHAL6A , CALML6 , CRTC2 , PGAM4 ,