description
The translation elongation cycle adds one amino acid at a time to a growing polypeptide according to the sequence of codons found in the mRNA. The next available codon on the mRNA is exposed in the aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) binding site (A site) on the 30S subunit.A: Ternary complexes of aa -tRNA:eEF1A:GTP enter the ribosome and enable the anticodon of the tRNA to make a codon/anticodon interaction with the A-site codon of the mRNA. B: Upon cognate recognition, the eEF1A:GTP is brought into the GTPase activating center of the ribosome, GTP is hydrolyzed and eEF1A:GDP leaves the ribosome. C: The peptidyl transferase center of ribosome catalyses the formation of a peptide bond between the incoming amino acid and the peptide found in the peptidyl-tRNA binding site (P site). D: In the pre-translocation state of the ribosome, the eEF2:GTP enters the ribosome, physically translocating the peptidyl-tRNA out of the A site to P site and leaves the ribosome eEF2:GDP. This action of eEF2:GTP accounts for the precise movement of the mRNA by 3 nucleotides.Consequently, deacylated tRNA is shifted to the E site. A ribosome associated ATPase activity is proposed to stimulate the release of deacylated tRNA from the E site subsequent to translocation (Elskaya et al., 1991). In this post-translocation state, the ribosome is now ready to receive a new ternary complex.This process is illustrated below with: an amino acyl-tRNA with an amino acid, a peptidyl-tRNA with a growing peptide, a deacylated tRNA with an -OH, and a ribosome with A,P and E sites to accommodate these three forms of tRNA

external resources
NCBI:1268690
REACTOME:R-HSA-156842
PUBMED:15189156

genes
EEF1A1 , EEF1A2 , EEF1B2 , EEF1D , EEF1G , EEF2 , FAU , RPSA , RPL10A , RPL3 , RPL3L , RPL4 , RPL5 , RPL6 , RPL7 , RPL7A , RPL8 , RPL9 , RPL10 , RPL11 , RPL12 , RPL13 , RPL15 , RPL17 , RPL18 , RPL18A , RPL19 , RPL21 , RPL22 , RPL23A , RPL24 , RPL26 , RPL27 , RPL30 , RPL27A , RPL28 , RPL29 , RPL31 , RPL32 , RPL34 , RPL35A , RPL36AL , RPL37 , RPL37A , RPL38 , RPL39 , RPL41 , RPL36A , RPLP0 , RPLP1 , RPLP2 , RPS2 , RPS3 , RPS3A , RPS4X , RPS4Y1 , RPS5 , RPS6 , RPS7 , RPS8 , RPS9 , RPS10 , RPS11 , RPS12 , RPS13 , RPS14 , RPS15 , RPS15A , RPS16 , RPS17 , RPS18 , RPS19 , RPS20 , RPS21 , RPS23 , RPS24 , RPS25 , RPS26 , RPS27 , RPS27A , RPS28 , RPS29 , UBA52 , RPL14 , RPL23 , RPL35 , RPL13A , RPL36 , RPS27L , RPL26L1 , RPL39L , RPS4Y2 , RPL10L , EEF1A1P5 , RPL22L1 ,